Thursday, June 25, 2020

Masculine and Feminine Identity in An Ideal Husband - Literature Essay Samples

Identity is fluid. Oscar Wilde’s An Ideal Husband (first performed 1895), affirms this concept. The play asserts the notion that we, as humans, carve our own identity through conscious decision. In doing so, Wilde interrogates the idea of identity rigidity – that human beings are born with certain characteristics, that these are static, and create our character. Wilde also interrogates Victorian notions of gender identity. He uproots traditional concepts surrounding masculinity, and disparages the development of the ‘new woman’ during the late 19th century. He deconstructs Victorian idealised notions of the wife and husband, forwarding a new, imperfect identity for both. Wilde, disputing Victorian notions of latent identity, depicts identity as mutable; shaped by human decision. This is evident through an examination of the characterisation of Lord Goring – the dandified bachelor of An Ideal Husband. He is said to be ‘clever’, ‘but he would not like to be thought so’, as well as ‘a flawless dandy, he would be annoyed if he were considered romantic’. These directives showing him as actively aware of how others perceive him, implying that he attempts to shape this perception. Lord Goring repeatedly downplays his intelligence, stating that he ‘knows nothing of practical life’ to Gertrude Chiltern, and telling Sir Robert to â€Å"never mind what I say†. However, he is then described as ‘showing the philosopher that underlies the dandy’. Through his characterisation, it is evident that Lord Goring actively shapes his identity, however false. An Ideal Husband’s interrogat ion of fixed identity is further emphasised by the character of Mrs Cheveley, the villainess of the play, as a shaper of her own identity. Although she ‘looks rather like an orchid’ and is ‘in all her movements extremely graceful’, Wilde makes it clear that this is a faà §ade she has chosen to present. She refers to ‘being natural’ as â€Å"such a very difficult pose to keep up†. Even being ‘natural’ is a pose, showing her active creation of an identity. In Act Three, Mrs Cheveley’s true nature is revealed, when ‘a mask has fallen from her’ and ‘she is, for the moment, dreadful to look at’. Mrs Cheveley is described in stage direction as ‘a work of art, on the whole, but showing the influence of too many schools’, denoting the idea that an ‘artist’ – the person themselves – has created their own identity. This idea is epitomised in Lady Markby’s statement that â€Å"Indeed, as a rule, everybody turns out to be somebody else†. Identity is therefore represented as fluid, and interrogated as unchanging, by An Ideal Husband. Wilde redefines set gendered identities, primarily through the contrast of characters Lord Goring and Sir Robert Chiltern. Chiltern is initially couched in masculine terms with a ‘firmly chiselled mouth and chin’ and ‘dark-haired and dark-eyed’ – the stereotypical ‘hero’ description. However, he is then repeatedly depicted ‘in a state of great mental excitement and distress’ uttering melodramatic statements such as ‘Oh, love me always, Gertrude, love me always!’ peppered with exclamations and repetition. This emotionality has typically been a female bastion. Lord Goring, on the other hand, is described in feminine terms wearing ‘all the delicate fopperies of fashion’. However his dialogue is more ‘masculine’ concise and witty, undercutting Sir Robert’s histrionics. For example, in the beginning of the second act, Sir Robert’s lengthy verses alternate with Lord Goring†™s short statements such as ‘Personally I have a great admiration for stupidity. It is a sort of fellow feeling I suppose’. This juxtaposition reverses gender expectations, redefining the masculine identity. Furthermore, the plays positive depiction of Lord Goring represents the ‘dandy’ as a valid male identity. The fringe aesthetic movement, of which Wilde was a key member, was frequently satirised by the conventional press, therefore Wilde interrogates Victorian gender identity expectations. The audience is endeared to Lord Goring through his comic dialogue–for example Lord Goring’s insistence in Act Three that his buttonhole is ‘too trivial’ and that it makes him look ‘a little too old’, combined with the Butler Phipps’ ‘yes, my lord’ replies is highly amusing. He also states whilst ‘looking at himself in the glass’ that â€Å"My father tells me that even I have faults. Perhaps I have. I don’t know†. To an audience watching the play, this image is extremely funny. Lord Goring is the source of many paradoxical statements, such as the famous ‘I love talking about nothing, father. It ’s the only thing I know anything about’. Therefore, through Wilde’s use of comedy, he endears us as audiences to the character of Lord Goring. Wilde’s humour makes the ‘dandy’ as an identity more palatable for a Victorian audience, thereby interrogating the traditional powerful ‘hero’ identity of men. Although Wilde is progressive in this respect, he is conservative in his interrogation of the ‘New Woman’ identity, foregrounded through the character of Lady Chiltern. Lady Chiltern ventures into the public sphere, involving herself with the Women’s Liberal Association and issues such as â€Å"Factory Acts, the Parliamentary franchise† and championing â€Å"the higher Education of women†. However, Wilde debunks this blossoming Victorian women identity. In the end of the play,. Lady Chiltern in dialogue disturbingly (for a modern audience) parrots Lord Goring’s statement that ‘a man’s life is of more value than a woman’s’, stating that â€Å"how women help the world† is through forgiving their men. The curtain closes upon the image of Lady Gertrude ‘leaning over the back of the chair’ her husband, Sir Robert, is seated upon – an image which could be interpreted as Lady Chiltern’s rel egation to the role of supporter of her husband. It implies that Lady Chiltern will no longer attempt to influence her husband in the public sphere due to the havoc this has caused, ending on a resoundingly conservative note lamenting the growing political influence and ‘new woman’ identity. Some may point to Mrs Cheveley, the villainess of the play, as evidence of Wilde’s encouragement of a strong female identity. Initially, Mrs Cheveley is characterised as independent– manipulating the male characters when she ‘drops her fan’ and Sir Robert is required to pick it up for her. She is depicted as powerful as seen in her position in Act One where she is ‘leaning back on the sofa’ in languid arrogance, as well as her militaristic dialogue where she refers to the ‘war’ she is winning against her ‘enemy’, Sir Robert in the ‘game of politics’ However, Mrs Cheveley is ultimately punished by Wilde, as a result of her attempts to exert agency in the ‘man’s world’ of politics. After the failure of her manipulations, she is silenced for the entirety of Act Four, implying her banishment from polite society, and evincing Wilde’s interrogation of the ‘new woman’ ident ity of women engaged in political life. The Victorian era was infamous for its moral absolutes, one aspect of which was the idealisation of the ‘wife’ and ‘husband’ identity – an idealisation Wilde interrogates through his forwarding of a new, imperfect identity. Lady Chiltern in the play repeatedly makes idealised statements of her husband such as that â€Å"Robert is as incapable of doing a foolish thing as he is of doing a wrong thing†, whilst the audience is well aware that this was not the case due to his sale of a Cabinet secret for great personal gain. Wilde’s use of dramatic irony therefore portrays Lady Gertrude as naà ¯ve, ridiculing these repeated statements. She then undergoes a character development at the hands of Wilde, ‘reforming’ in the end to forgive her husband, and blaming herself for â€Å"setting him up too high†, affirming the idea that we should not expect our partners to be perfect in the resolution. This idea is epitomised in Mabe l Chiltern’s statement at the end of the play that she would not like â€Å"an ideal husband†, stating that â€Å"he can be what he chooses† and that all she wants to be is â€Å"a real wife†. The resolution of the play is the message the play wishes to leave, and it is clear that Wilde is advocating for an ‘imperfect’ identity in marriage, with acceptance and acknowledgement of faults forming our perception of our partner – their identity.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Developmental Theory Created By Erik Erikson - 1990 Words

Abstract This paper explores the developmental theory created by Erik Erikson, which focuses on the major psychosocial dilemmas that a person struggles with over the course of their entire life. Following a brief biography of Erikson’s life, the paper will touch upon the 8 stages between birth and death wherein the most psychologically significant of these dilemmas take place. It will discuss the psychological impact of trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, and industry versus inferiority on early development from infancy through childhood. It will then cover the significance of identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair on the mind from adolescence to late adulthood. The importance of the specific positive concept in each struggle, including the accepted ways in which to help those concepts to flourish and grow, will be explored. Conversely, the likely causes of each of the negative concepts and their psychological impact on stunting the emotional growth of the individual will also be discussed, along with the influences that many of these concepts impact each other both directly in the next stage of development and indirectly many stages later. Erik Erikson and a Lifetime of Development The Life of Erik Erikson Erik Erikson was born on June 15th, 1902 to mother Karla Abrahamsen in Frankfurt, Germany. Estranged since birth from his father, a stockbrokerShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Mcadams 1154 Words   |  5 Pagesthis article McAdams, the author guides the reader through the life stories of different psychologists , he provide a real recollection of life stories and narrative approaches that recent researcher and theories have apply to understand human behavior. This article integrates recent theories and researchers of life stories as illustrated the investigation of self-understanding, personal memory, personality structure and change, and the relations between the personal lives and cultural. The articleRead MoreErikson’s End Stage of Development Essay1295 Words   |  6 Pagesaccording to Erik Erikson, they go through developmental stages that help to create and transform their personalities. If needs are met and the ego is gratified, then the individual is able to move on to the next challenge. Onward they march in life and in stage until they find the end level: integrity versus despair. This has been categorized as adults 65 years and older by Erikson. Here, people are to reminisce and judge their lives in terms of merit or disappointment. Erikson himself had aRead MoreAnalysis Of Eriksons Theory On Early Childhood Education1212 Words   |  5 Pagesthe education profession. Erik Erikson Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. - Erik Erikson Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a Germon born developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human lie. He is most famous for devising the phrase â€Å"identity crisis.† Erikson was a Harvard professor althoughRead MoreErik Erikson And Jean Piaget s Theories Essay1291 Words   |  6 PagesErik Erikson and Jean Piaget are quite similar in their theories. Jean Piaget’s cognitive theory is only slightly different than Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Both theorists use the idea of developmental stages. Although the stages vary in what they entail, the carry the same idea of progressive development. Jean Piaget was born September 16, 1980, in Switzerland. His research found â€Å"that the growth of knowledge is a progressive construction of logically embedded structures superseding oneRead MoreEssay on Compare and Contrast Erik Erikson Sigmund Freud909 Words   |  4 PagesCompare and Contrast Erik Erikson Sigm und Freud This research paper will compare and contrast two of the most influencial psychologists who helped shape the way we understand the development of the human mind; Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. The paper will focus on the similarities and differences between Freud’s Psycho-sexual theory, and Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Freud was one of the very first influencial psychologists who changed the way we study humans. Erikson recognized Freud’sRead MoreMidlife Behavior Essay examples1576 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom extended family, peers, and caring adults outside the family created a positive environment for the person to continue along the life course. Erik Erikson, Karl Jung and Daniel Levinson are three prominent developmental theorists on human development on the journey of life. Erik Erikson, Karl Jung and Daniel Levinson are three prominent developmental theorists on human development on the journey of life. Erik Erikson theory surrounding middle adulthood is it a time of balancing everythingRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Development Essay1635 Words   |  7 PagesMany theories have been written on the subject of human development. Each theory has been further postulated and dissected to include: social, emotional, mental, and biological development. Many theoretical approaches and frameworks have been formulated to offer possible explanations for human behavior. It is paramount for social workers to have a working knowledge of these various theoretical approaches in order to identify and assess their client’s needs effectively. Theories provide basic hypothesesRead MoreWhat is Psychosocial Development?948 Words   |  4 Pagesman named Erik Erikson who was a psychoanalyst who believed that early childhood successes and failures were responsib le for influencing later developmental stages developed this theory. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is based around the theory that social experience has an impact over an entire lifespan. There are eight stages developmental stages of development in the psychosocial theory and I will briefly examine all eight stages in this paper. Erik Erikson is bestRead MoreThe Eight Stages Of Personality Growth1327 Words   |  6 Pagesthe eight stages of personality growth. Erik Erikson an ego psychologist created a theory on personality development evolution that states it is a continuous process through the lifetime of an individual. Erikson suggested culture also plays an essential role in a society s perception and consideration of normal and considered abnormal. Erikson (1950, 1963), does not speak about psychosexual Stages as Freud, though influenced Freudian ideas. Erikson broadens on Freudian thoughts by focusingRead MoreFreuds and Eriksons Perspectives on Human Development Essay924 Words   |  4 Pagesis child development, it greatly impacts the rest of our lives and ultimate helps determine who we become as an adult. From a psychoanalytical perspective there are two great theorists, Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. From a Freudian perspective human development is based on psychosexual theory. From a psychosexual perspective maturation of the sex drives underlies stages of personality development (Shaffer et al., 2010). Ultimately, Freud believed that sex was the most important instinct and any

Monday, May 18, 2020

Domestic Violence And Its Effects On Society - 904 Words

Statistics state, â€Å"One out of every four women will go through domestic violence situations in life. ( Domestic violence is aggressive behavior towards someone else at home or in a relationship. This can happen at home between spouses/partners or parents and children. Domestic violence should be given more acknowledgment in the media and in classrooms so that people are aware of what is happening. If we do not continue to advocate for victims and educate society, victims will continue to suffer physically,mentally, and emotionally, victims of this behavior go back to their abuser, leading victims to later become abusers themselves. Victims or survivors of domestic violence end up enduring so much mental, physical, and emotional abuse that they do not realize there is a problem. defines the following behaviors as abuse: psychological abuse, such as intimidating someone, threatening physical harm to someone else, and destruction of pets and property; physical abuse, which is described as grabbing, pinching, shoving, slapping, and punching; emotional abuse, which includes constantly putting someone down, making someone feel unimportant, using abusive language, such as calling them ugly or worthless and tearing down another’s relationship with their children. A combination of these actions can come together and damage someone. The Joyful Heart Foundation emphasizes that the long term effects of domestic violence can have a major impact on someone’sShow MoreRelatedDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1745 Words   |  7 Pages Domestic Violence in Literature Domestic violence entails transgressions that tend to exhibit regular occurrence worldwide. Domestic violence is substantially attributable to the psychological, physical, mental, and sexual forms of suffering or anguish. Domestic violence further refers to the family violence or spousal abuse that defines the evident pattern of violent behaviors executed by one spouse to the other in the close affiliations that include courtships, matrimony, family, or individualsRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1204 Words   |  5 Pages a.INTRODUCTION Domestic violence is defined as a violent behavior or an act of abuse between couples in the home. It is called family violence. Usually most women are harmed and the witnesses of this violence are also effected. This abuse is frowned upon in todays society. In Chile domestic violence wasn t taken seriously because of the cultural norm which was that men controlled the women. There are many treatments for the abuse but they are only focused on the victim; the one committing theRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1649 Words   |  7 PagesIn America most cases of Domestic Violence are never actually reported, many times these cases go unheard and the victims suffer in silence. The worn out cries of a battered woman as she lays on the ground clutching herself and begging her significant other to just stop. The bruises and cuts that remain unreported due to the victim claiming they accidentally fell yet again. The abusers tend to make the victim almost entirely depend able on them. An abuser will do this to gain control and to createRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society869 Words   |  4 Pagesimbalance of neurotransmitters can impact an individual’s development and overall self-image. Equally, an individual’s experience with domestic violence and its horrific ramifications can also impact a person’s psychological, emotional, physical, and social growth. Domestic Violence Domestic violence, is a virulent calamity that has woven its way into our society for thousands of years. It is not biased to a particular race, group, or culture. Grievously, it has an everlasting negative impact onRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1859 Words   |  8 Pagesdoors. Domestic violence kills. The facts are startling; one in every four women will experience domestic violence in her lifetime, and those are just the cases that are reported. In the past weeks, America’s eye has been fixated on the NFL and the Capital Justice Departments prosecution of Adrian Peterson, Ray Rice and Greg Hardy. They were all indicted on allegations of domestic violence and abuse. Each year, another stack of players are arrested, or â€Å"caught† with a history of domestic violenceRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society2241 Words   |  9 PagesDomestic violence, a highly prevalent, almost authorized, legally penalized, almost always hidden h einous crime, has been a matter of concern in many countries. More so in India, as every 2 in 5 women face domestic violence in India and about once every five minutes an incident of domestic violence is reported in India, under its legal definition of cruelty by husband or his relatives. Although it is gender neutral, domestic violence is usually perpetrated against women and hence it becomes essentialRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1360 Words   |  6 Pagesissue of domestic violence. Defined by (2012) as a behavior â€Å"used by one person in a relationship to control the other†, domestic violence can be physical, emotional, sexual, verbal, or even financial. Although the issue of abusers being punished is a significant one, it must be realized that there are victims, and those victims need help. Some countries have no concern or sympathy for victims, as more than twenty countries have no laws against abuse (Domestic Violence in DevelopingRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1431 Words   |  6 PagesDomestic violence is that dark little secret kept by your neighbor, your friend, your family member, or even yourself. It touches the lives of men, women, and children in every ethnic and economic group on the face of the earth. In order to stem the tide of this egregious and infectious behavior we cannot consider it solely a women’s issue. It is as much a men’s issue as it is a women’s issue, maybe more so, and can only be effectively addressed if we enlist and encourage the help of familyRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Society1720 Words   |  7 PagesTo date, although domestic violence has been researched, the law remains a constraint to victims’ growth and stability. The laws and programs provided in today’s society are limited and affect the victims exit from domestic violence relationships. Further research could propel an initiation of better-developed laws and programs and cause a great impact in how victims respond to domestic violence. Few studies have researched how successful domestic violence victims have been with the legal processRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On The Society Essay1699 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Domestic violence is not is not just physical abuse, but is any behavior that is intended to control another person through the use of verbal assaults (*cite*) A huge social issue throughout the world today. Domestic violence is not only limited to spousal abuse but also includes sibling abuse, elder abuse and child abuse. Domestic violence may also be known as family violence, wife or child beating and domestic abuse. (cite) Domestic Violence s a very important social issue throughout

Monday, May 11, 2020

4 Important Tips Every Mommy-to-Be Could Learn from Nursing Essays for Sale

Pregnant? Considering starting a family? Just had a baby? Nursing is a great field to get into. Even if you aren’t in nursing, descriptive essays for sale that are within the topic of nursing have a lot to teach mommies-to-be. Nursing is a well-respected profession, and it’s worth learning. Becoming a nurse after being a student is one of the best options for moms. Even if you are looking to be a nurse, if you purchase a term paper or view some samples, there are many things to be gained from doing this. 1. Learn about Vaccinations Vaccinating your child is extremely important. It will help protect them from serious diseases and sicknesses. It’s usually one of the first things mothers do after they have borne their babies. When you buy an essay specifically about this, you will learn which immunizations are needed, and when. Some parents choose not to vaccinate, so you can have a look at both sides and decide for yourself what will be best. 2. Learn about Feeding Another very important aspect of parenting is feeding. Just like us, babies need food, but they can’t be given solid food right away. As a mother-to-be, it’s important to know when and what is going to be okay to feed your future child. Academic writing on this subject is widely available, and usually for pretty cheap. Purchasing a custom research essay may be better than buying a book. 3. Learn to Handle Emergency Situations You simply never know what can happen. At one point or another, as horrible as it may sound, there will probably be an emergency involving your child. At this time, you should know what to do. Examples of emergencies include choking, serious injuries, incidents at school, etc. When these occasions arise, whether it happens to your own child or someone else’s, you will need to act fast. Professional writers can teach you about these problems, how to recognize them, and most importantly, how to solve them. Finding a good English essay service is one of the best ways to become knowledgeable about such issues. 4. Learn about General Baby Care Raising a baby is quite hard. There’s no reason why you shouldn’t have help from literature. Write down the questions you have, and then start searching for nursing papers. They can teach you how to care for your newborn, baby, or even a toddler. Bathing, sleeping patterns, health issues, etc. are all a part of caring for a child. These are must-learns for a mommy-to-be, so take some time and have a look at the nursing essays for sale. If you don’t find what you are looking for, you can always put in a request. Good luck on your exciting journey into parenting! It’ll be a lot of fun once you are well prepared.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Psychological Disorders Analyzed in Watchmen - 2297 Words

Name Date Course Professor/Instructor Psychological Disorders analyzed in Watchmen Through out the graphic novel Watchmen written by Alan Moore, Moore tells the story of a particular superhero group referred to as Watchmen whom for the most part possess relatively human characteristics. In a reversed manner, Moore uses these characters to symbolize the different kinds of human beings in the world rather than the typical super beings so often created in traditional comic books (Disinformation). Like humans, characters in Watchmen all fall short of their own problems, failures, and weaknesses and struggle like every day-to-day people in society. One of the many afflictions that the heroes face, in particular Rorschach, Ozymandias, and†¦show more content†¦Beginning to understand Jon, it is always important to look into the character’s past. Unlike Rorschach’s abusive tale, Jon came from a clean-cut, educated background before his transformation into Doctor Manhattan. After the transformation however is when Jon can be associated with a specific disorder called Schizoid Personality Disorder that sums up Doctor Manhattan perfectly. Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) is a disorder than is characterized by â€Å"lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy† (Perry 6). Other providing information about this disorder states that SPD can characterize people as â€Å"comfortably dull and at the same time sensitive.† Many are described to have â€Å"shut-in personalities† and incapable of common discussion of events (Akhtar 500). Some psychologists struggle to determine if SPD is considered an illness or an actual personality disorder (Panagiotis 46). Others argue that in fact individuals presented with difficulties may tend to keep relationships at a distance, choosing to be more self-reliant while they feel discomfort with intimacy and interdependence (Panagiotis 47). The stateme nts listed above in describing SPD exists very much within Doctor Manhattan. After his transformation, his personality became contradictory of what his â€Å"human† personality use to be. In explanation of this claim,Show MoreRelatedEssay about Using Psychology to Find Serial Killers2550 Words   |  11 PagesHunter† explains in depth how the use of psychology can create a profile and catch a criminal. By psychoanalyzing the criminal, victim, crime scene, and anything other available resources, you can get inside the mind of the offender and create a psychological profile. This profile includes everything from the idea of what sort of childhood they had to what they might look like. All of the information can be found by analyzing the crime. The first way to find any criminal and start a profile is to startRead MoreThe Elements Behind Policing And Police Culture3506 Words   |  15 Pages Mississippi Valley State University November 18, 2014 The Elements Behind Policing and Police Culture Introduction A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and to limit civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of the responsibility

Indo-Burma Forests Free Essays

Forestry â€Å"Indo-Burma Forests† Forests, some of the most essential ecosystems in the world, house about forty to seventy-five percent all plants and animals globally. Unfortunately, the amount of biodiversity in forests is severely at risk due to the increasing deforestation over the past four decades. It is estimated in the biological community that approximately 50,000 species are completely wiped out annually as a result of arbitration, land clearance, logging, and other human techniques. We will write a custom essay sample on Indo-Burma Forests or any similar topic only for you Order Now Dry. Edward Wilson, a Harvard professor, predicts that half of all of earth’s species could be extinct in about 50 years, unless the deforestation rate decreases. In 2011, Conservation International (also known as C’) conducted a study of the top ten most endangered forests in the world (half of them located Asia-Pacific Region). Of the ten, the Indo-Burma forests were deemed the number one most endangered forest. Encompassing approximately 2,373,000 km, the forests spreads from eastern India to Southern china. The Indo- Burma forests are considered to be one of 34 â€Å"biodiversity hotshots,† a term coined y Norman Myers (a British biologist), which is a biographic landscape characterized by outstanding levels of habitat loss and plant endemics. Over ninety- five percent of the region’s forests have been destroyed, which leaves only about five percent of the original forest area still standing; therefore, the Indo-Burma forests are the most vulnerable forests globally. The Indo-Burma forests are positioned in the midst of floodplains, lakes, and rivers. These various waterways give off life and prosperity, allowing richness in biodiversity as well as resources. This region is home oh number of the largest freshwater fish, bird, and turtle species. There is also, an assortment of ecosystems embodied in this hotshot, comprising of dry evergreen, wet evergreen, and deciduous forests. There are also several patches of woodlands and scrubbings on karts limestone ridges, some in costal lands as well as dispersed heath forests. Additionally, a broad range of distinct, restricted vegetation developments, including seasonally flooded grasslands, lowland floodplain swamps, and mangroves. This vast biological diversity is a result of topographical interaction, soil hegemonies, climate change, and seasonal rainfall patterns. The plant species are abundantly diverse with 13,500 vascular plants estimated with about half of them being endemic. The flora of forests range from a variety of ginger and orchids (over 1,000 different orchid species found in Thailand alone) to tropical hardwood trees including Disintegrations (teak) and Dipterous (which happens to be commercially valuable). The animal species are even more widespread as Indo-Burma is continually unmasking biological treasures. In the last twelve years, [the following] six age mammals have been discovered: The Salon, the Inanimate Mountain, the Large- Antlered Mountain, the Leaf Deer, the Grey Swanked Doc, and the Inanimate Rabbit. There are approximately 430 mammal species residing in the region; over seventy species and seven types are endemic. Over 280 amphibian species are found in the hotshot, but there is not high level of endemics outside of the genus level. The region has noteworthy freshwater fish creatures; there are over 1,260 recognized species (about 10% of the world’s total freshwater fish). There are more than 1,260 bird species with over 60 being endemic. The floodplain wetlands and the rivers are absolutely essential for bird species conservation since population numbers have declined due to human expansion and hunting. The reptile population is one of the more prevalent species of the region. Almost 520 species of reptile reside there which more than 200 species being endemic and twelve genera. This Indo-Burma hotshot carries perhaps the largest assortment of freshwater turtles globally; there are exactly 53 species (57 including tortoises), signifying 20% of the world’s species. A popular species is the Chitchatted, a striped narrow-headed turtle with a soft-shell, which can grow up to about 120 centimeters. These species are decreases in number as well, mostly due to the overexploitation on behalf of wildlife trade. Of the 22 non- marine turtle species that are endangered, almost half of them are found in the Indo- Burma region. Other prominent reptiles include the Ellipsis butterfly lizard, the Chinese crocodile lizard, and the Siamese crocodile. Humans have greatly impacted life for the animals, however, and the overall environment. Indo-Burma was actually one of the primary lands used by humans in the development of agriculture; Hereford, fire has been used more and more over the years to clear out land needed to fit agricultural needs and other human demands. As demand for agricultural goods has skyrocketed over the past years due to population and market expansion, forest destruction became widespread. Huge areas of lowland forests soon became replaced with tree plantations (oil palm, teak, and rubber), while hill forests and Montana were threatened by sugarcane, coffee, tea, and vegetable crop plantations. In addition to plantations, forests become endangered by mining for ores and gems, firewood collection, charcoal production, and logging. The marine ecosystem simultaneously became under great pressure in many areas due to development. Draining for the cultivation of wet rice has damaged freshwater wetlands and floodplain swamps (mainly in Vietnam, Thailand, and Manner). The damming of rivers have also become way more prevalent in efforts to generate electricity and maximize water storage to support the economic growth of the country as well as for exportation of goods and services to bordering countries to increase foreign exchange income; regrettably, damming a river not only converts that small body of eater into a large pond, but it decreases the oxygen content and overall temperature, as well as in amplifies water turbidity down the river and river-bed erosion. The operational measures of the reservoir has resulted in sporadic or frequent flooding of sandbanks, stretches of channel assortment, sandbars, and other territory that is generally uncovered during dry season [severely impacting turtle species and nesting birds]. Mangroves in the region have been transformed to aquaculture ponds, while mudflats have been comprehensively afforested with mangrove or shed by piles of nets, which greatly effects their significance as a feeding habitat for migrating birds and other specimen. Furthermore, ecosystems of sand dunes are in severe danger due to forestation, and overfeeding along with excessive use of [destructive] fishing methods have produced a considerable problem with both the offshore and coastal aquatic ecosystems. Being that only 5% of natural habitats are left in a pristine state and 10%-25% of damaged land due to habitat loss and exploitation of resources, something had to be done to decrease the probability of omelet extinction of the forests. In the Indo-Burma hotshot, protected area structures have become the foundation of government conservation program. There is officially 236,000 km of land protected, representing nearly ten percent of the original amount of vegetation in the region. Conversely, only 132,000 km (almost six percent) is in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (ICON) protected area categories one to four. Together, the countries of Lower Mekong (Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Ala P. D. R. ) have above 13 percent f their territory contained by an arrangement of protected areas. A fine approach to ensuring that the system of protected areas effectively preserves representative biodiversity is by securing the species that face the greatest danger of extinction globally. Endangered species worldwide are shielded best by targeting preservation investment to the sites in which they are prevalent; these areas are known as â€Å"key biodiversity areas† (Kbps). More efforts towards the conservation of the Indo-Burma forests are currently in the making and there are many organizations and individuals that are eager to contribute. How to cite Indo-Burma Forests, Papers

The Letter A free essay sample

A is a powerful letter. It can be a word by itself. Add a scarlet hue and it ostracizes a woman from society. Its shape resembles the great pyramids, the only wonder of the ancient world still standing. And as a grade, it represents achievement, hard work, being the best. I have always earned As in school. Im not grade-obsessed, I simply work hard to understand and retain the material. But this year, my classes are pushing me further than Ive ever worked before. In my AP calculus and biology classes, I have generous amounts of homework every night. Hunched over my calculus book at 10 p.m., I curse its seemingly unending questions. In biology, we begin a new lab before weve even finished the last. And between labs there are Latin root quizzes, study guides, and readings. Theres always something for me to be working on. We will write a custom essay sample on The Letter A or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Though Im more dedicated to my homework this year, my grades may not reflect that due to the rigor of my classes. And Im okay with that. Of course I would love to maintain my 4.0 GPA, but getting a B in a class or two wont affect what Ive learned or what Im capable of doing in the future. It wont change the fact that I want to study engineering or how I want to use that knowledge to improve the world. It really only changes the way I am labeled for the future. And when it comes down to the basics, A is merely a letter.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Personal Ethic Statement free essay sample

VirtuePersonal Ethics Statement Personal ethics provides a foundation for an individuals’ moral scale. It reflects personal beliefs on values, morals, right, and wrong. Personal ethics is influenced by family, friends, community, religion, culture, and coworkers; and that can have a positive or negative impact. Personal ethics varies from person to person; some points may be similar whereas others will differ. Personal ethics drives actions, and to some point, emotions day by day. Depending, on the individual our personal ethics and where we stand will lead us on a path of failure or success. According to my Ethical Lens Inventory, my preferred ethical lens is Rights- Responsibility and Results Lens (Ethical Lens Inventory Games), meaning that I can think rationally and still be emotionally balanced while coming up with a solution for the greater good of the people. I value independence and individual rights while making sure everyone is treated fairly. I am optimistic and like to bring new ideas to the table that someone may not have seen before. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Ethic Statement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page My blind spot is â€Å"Belief that motives justify methods or your own good is good† (Ethical Lens Inventory Games). Sometimes I let people down who are depending on me. I can ignore other problems as long as mines are solved. My strengths are â€Å"Self Knowledge and Free will† (Ethical Lens Inventory Games) I believe in balancing responsibility and entrepreneurship. I believe everyone should be accountable and self-reliant because I am so I expect that from others. My weakness is once I have made up my mind about something that I can close the door on other interpretation. I also have to accept that I cannot do everything by myself and that if I do not take the time to reflect that I can fail and become exhausted. My values are Autonomy, Rationality, Sensibility, Temperance, and Prudence (Ethical Lens Inventory Games). As a result of my personal background and what I have learned, I have placed prominence on being independent but also accepting help from others. My course of action is taking and accepting responsibility for my own actions. I have high expectations and my actions will determine my level of success. I will take time out to reflect on who I am, who I want to become and how I am going to get there. I am going to do what is right and in my heart. I will not change who I am for others even if they dislike me. I will follow the golden rule and treat people how I want to be treated. I will be fair to others and avoid being biased. I will fulfill my duties for those counting on me, and be respectful and show dignity for myself and for others. I will never settle for less and try my hardest at everything that I do, and seek continued improvement. References Ethics Games. Ethical Lens Inventory Report. Retrieved from http://www. ethicsgames. com

Friday, April 10, 2020

The Advantages of Using Graduate Student Sample Essays

The Advantages of Using Graduate Student Sample EssaysIf you are looking for a great way to start out your graduate degree, then sample essays are the best choice you could make. The kind of research that a graduate student does is lengthy and comprehensive.If you study for your graduate degree then you will have had the opportunity to do extensive research. In fact, this is where the students advance beyond their field. As a student, you will have had the chance to gain knowledge in a specific area.For a graduate student, this is where you will be able to build your 'legs' as a researcher. As a student, you will have the opportunity to obtain as much information as possible. This is where the student is able to form a solid research profile and become a researcher that will serve the research community well. You will be able to compare your experiences and background with that of your counterparts in the research community.As a graduate student, you will be able to bring this inform ation to the attention of your instructors and fellow researchers. This will be an advantage to you and your instructor's because you will be able to compare your areas of interest and the research methodology employed.In business graduate students, they are able to build and update on their research profile. As a business graduate student, you will have the opportunity to carry out your research with the help of your professors. This will enable you to gain the knowledge that you will need to continue your career with your area of interest.There are many different areas that a student could focus their research on. This is the reason why sample essays are such a valuable tool. Using sample essays will enable you to do extensive research in a number of different fields.As a graduate student, you will be able to establish yourself in the professional world and your field of interest. By taking up a graduate degree, it will be a stepping stone to help you advance your career. You will have the opportunity to develop yourself and the skills that you need to take on the research challenges that you will encounter as a graduate student. As a graduate student, you will have the opportunity to develop your research portfolio and become an expert.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Chinas Reform Essays - Supply Chain Management, Klaus Obermeyer

Chinas Reform Sport Obermeyer Sport Obermeyer is a high-end fashion skiwear design and merchandising company headquartered in Aspen, Colorado. Over the years, Sports Obermeyer has developed into a dominant competitor. Sports Obermeyer's estimated sales in 1992 were $32.8 million. The company holds 45% share of children's skiwear and 11% of adult Skiwear market. Sport Obermeyer produces merchandise ranging from: parkas, vests, ski suits, shells, ski pants, turtlenecks, and accessories. These products are sold throughout U.S. department stores in urban areas and ski shops. With increasing demands and rising competition, Sport Obermeyer needs to have and edge on the market. Starting in 1985 with a joint venture in Hong Kong called Obersport, the company began to increase productivity to meet their new demands. Recently, a number of contractual ventures were added and a new complex in Lo Village Guangdong China have enhance production but increase the level of difficulty on the planning and production stages. The Spo rt Obermeyer case describes the forecasting, planning and production processes of a global skiwear supply channel. The case provides an in-depth description of the planning and production processes Sport Obermeyer and its supply channel partners undergo each year to develop and deliver Obermeyer's product line. The case will emphasis on the nature of the information that flows among the members of the supply chain and the timing of key decisions and events in order to have a successful inventory line. Sport Obermeyer, was founded in 1947 by Klaus Obermeyer. Klaus Obermeyer, a German immigrant began teaching at the Aspen Ski School in 1947. During his time teaching, he observed his students being unprotected by impractical clothing during frigid weather. The clothing worn by his students were less stylish and provided little shielding than clothes made in his native Germany. These experiences led Klaus to introduce a variety of skiwear products. He is credited in making the first goose down vest out of an old down comforter. Klaus also introduced turtlenecks, wind shirts in the U.S. and in 1980 he popularized the ski brake. Klaus products are targeted for serious skiers. Eighty five percent of the Sport Obermeyer's market is a serious skier that utilizes the products for winter activities. Sport Obermeyer's produces manufactures for five different genders: men, women, boys, girls, and preschoolers. Each gender market offers an excellent price/value relationship, where value was def ined as both functionality and style. Sport Obermeyer's focuses on the middle to high-end ski-market. Functionality was critical to the serious skier-products, which had to be warm and waterproof, yet not constrain the skier's ability to move his or her arms and legs freely. Management believed that the effective implementation of its product strategy relied on several logistics-related activities, including delivering matching collections of products to retailers at the same time (to allow consumers to view and purchase coordinated items at the same time), and delivering products to retail stores early in the selling season (to maximize the number of square-footage days products were available at retail). Since the beginning Klaus has been actively involved in the company's management. Klaus management approach was described as, Free of tension. Klaus ultimate goal was to achieve harmony by emphasizing trust to the customers and providing quality and value to all consumers. Klaus's decision-making skills were based on intuition and his overall industry experience. The Obermeyer family was actively involved in making sure new innovating products; color and styles were being produced. Lately, Wally Obermeyer has become more actively involved with the management and production stages. Wally's approach relies heavily on formal data-gathering and analytical techniques. Wally's continues to believe that quality and value are high priorities but as of late Sport's Obermeyer's product lines have not been as successful. Wally decisions are centered on which styles to make in China and which styles to make in Hong Kong. Will production in China constrain Obermeyer's ability to manage production and inventory risks? Wally's decisions are based on the Obermeyer's overall order cycle, supply chain, strategy and structure. Sport Obermeyer's, structure is formulated through a two-year planning and production process. The design process for the 1993-1994-inventory line begins in February 1992. This task involves careful analysis, experience, intuition, and utter assumption. The market's key goal to is

Thursday, March 5, 2020

French Gestures ~ Understanding Using French Gestures

French Gestures ~ Understanding Using French Gestures If youve ever been to France or watched French movies, youve undoubtedly seen French people performing some familiar gestures as well as a few unfamiliar ones. While some gestures are vulgar, others are as innocuous as shaking or nodding ones head. In any case, it is as essential to understand this French sign language as it is any vocabulary. These pages include photos, explanations, and register ratings for 45 gestures. Top 10 French Gestures Among the dozens of gestures and facial expressions in these lessons, there are ten that really stand out. French Gestures by Register  (what is register?) Note that some gestures have different names and are thus listed more than once. Normal Informal Familiar Use with anyone Use only with people you tutoie Use only with close friends A peu prs Alors, l Ae, ae Baiser la main Au poil Barrons-nous Cest fini Bises Bisque ! Chut Bof Camembert Jai du nez Bouche cousue a pue On a sommeil Cest nul Cest pas donn Parfait Comme-ci, comme-a Clapet Pardon Dlicieux Coup dans le nez Rptez Faire la bise / le bisou Du fric Se serrer la main Faire la moue Ferme-la ! Silence Gallic shrug Il est cingl Tlphone Je le jure Je men fous Se tourner les pouces Jen ai ras le bol Mon il ! Un, deux, trois Sen jeter un derrire la cravate On se tire Magnifique Pied de nez Motus et bouche cousue Que dalle ! La moue Quelle barbe ! Nul Verre dans le nez On boit Passer sous le nez Poil dans la main Quest-ce quil chante, l ? Vulgar - Offensive Ras-le-bol Use with extreme care Rien Le bras dhonneur Shrug Cocu Sous le nez Va te faire foutre Victoire Zro

Monday, February 17, 2020

The Volcker Rule and its Consequences for the Financial and Banking Essay

The Volcker Rule and its Consequences for the Financial and Banking System - Essay Example Federal Reserve has publicly announced that the banking system of US does not need to accept and operate according to the rule before the month of July of 2014 but the banks will have to conduct the process of â€Å"good faith planning efforts† to get ready to accept the rule in the future and during the temporary phase. As banks and the financial system is still not aware of the bans that will be levied, there will be a cloud of uncertainty that these systems will experience for two years (Ciro 2012). These systems are experiencing ambiguity in understanding what does the Federal Reserve means by good faith planning efforts. The ambiguities are making condition worse thus decision makers should make the scenario clear and present the effects of the rule on US and other nations. The cloudy situation was made clear when a draft of the regulation was prepared and this draft consisted of details regarding the services offered by financial system and the way these services are use d by the common public. The situation is still quite unclear for financial institutions as even the draft wasn’t clear enough to identify the effects that the rule will have on financial sector. The European Union and other countries have even showed concerns as they expect that the rule will decrease the liquidity in world financial markets, thus it is quite clear that the rule will impact the financial systems negatively. Body The delay in implementing and clearing the effect of the rule may not help the banks and make situation worse as banks do not have the correct idea of when the rule will be implemented and banks will have to accept the rule legally regardless of whether they understand its effect or not. Legally it is stated that those banks that have operated in good faith effort during the temporary implementation phase will experience less problems in complying with the actual rule. The policy makers should make the scenario clearer instead of making the financial system of US and overseas operate according to their own guess work. The delay is making the financial system take decisions under ambiguous situation which is already hurting the system. Volcker Permitted Bank Activities According to the rule there are certain permitted activities that can be performed by the banks, these activities comprise of banks acting as market maker, underwriter, hedger, deals of government securities and other activities that are stated under the act as permitted activities. These activities have been permitted to ensure that banks continue to provide liquidity to the markets and help companies in raising capital. But these activities have been restricted to ensure that banks do not cross the line and the funds with the bank do not become unsafe. If the permitted activities cannot be conducted in a safe environment and without risky conditions, then the federal system has the right to barge banks from conducting such activities or increase charges and fines on these activities so these activities become unfavourable to the banks. The activities that have been stated as acceptable in the rule are done on the basis that the bank conducts these activities for the customer and only to meet the short term demands of the customers. Rule Effect The Volcker Rule has received its name from the Paul Volcker who was the Federal Reserve Chairman during the period of the financial crises of 2008. The

Monday, February 3, 2020

Designing a Diversity Workshop for University Faculty Incorporating Research Paper

Designing a Diversity Workshop for University Faculty Incorporating Multicultural and International Objectives - Research Paper Example Diversity, in years gone by, was not embraced. In fact, it was often shunned to the point where the country saw many colleges and universities rise to the level one race, one religion, and one culture. To continue with this practice would not only be an injustice to students around the world who have come to cherish our individual freedoms and liberties, but it would service to deny faculty and the student body alike the privilege of learning in a multi-cultural environment. Understanding and accepting people of other cultures and beliefs do not have to be a daunting task. It simply requires compassion and a desire learn from and embrace others. Our university might be small in number, but we have the capacity to develop a cultural awareness that rivals institutions much larger than our own. Our own faculty is diverse, yet we have failed to tap into this reality. We should be making use of our broad range of professional and military experience in order to better understand the diver sity existent around us and to use the knowledge to impact our student body as well. This training program has been developed with our faculty in mind. It will focus on the instructional methodologies inherent in multicultural education, and it will create a sense of global awareness amongst us all that we must be conversant with the latest educational issues, diversity, and multicultural theory. It is in so doing that we will truly become a global institution who can make a positive impact in the field of education, while embracing multicultural diversity and becoming more accepting of each student and staff member who passes through our illustrious halls. Purpose There is no mistaking that the world is becoming increasingly diverse, yet this same diversity has not been reflected in the field of higher education. According to Hill, et. al (2011), only 10% of earned Doctorates in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are represented by minority groups (p. 2 0). This not only leaves a great gap in these critical fields, but it indicates a troubling trend. If universities cannot embrace multicultural education, then society will be losing out on valuable learning opportunities moving forward. This purpose of this training workshop is to reverse this trend by providing faculty members with the tools necessary to incorporate multicultural education into the classroom, thereby encouraging diversity and an exchanging of scholarly and academic ideas across cultures. Embracing the diversity amongst us, a further purpose of this workshop will be to share various pedagogical techniques with one another that will serve to enhance our own multicultural understanding. Our students are increasingly coming from a diverse background and we must work together with all students to foster an atmosphere of understanding and respect. This begins with the faculty, each of who has valuable experience to draw from in the field of diversity education. Embracin g all people does require, to some extent, a shift in our way of thinking and the methods that we employ in our disciplines. It has been noted by some faculty members at other institutions that, â€Å"Fundamental and sustainable change is possible, given the right combination of vision, compromise, and commitment† (Grogan & Vaz, 2003, p. 35). It is this primary need for change that forms the basis for this

Sunday, January 26, 2020

International trade and specialisation

International trade and specialisation The nations economic structures was formed by the pervasive power of internationalisation which is a substantial phenomenon improved rapidly especially in the last decades. International business, one of the constituents of globalisation and liberalization in todays world, International business from Toynes perspective is the process that involves the exchange of goods and /or services across or within national boundaries between two or more social actions in different countries for commercial reasons (Vaghefi et al., 1991). A broad definition provided by Aswathppa those business transactions that involve the crossing of national boundaries which include, product presence in different markets of the world, production bases across the globe, human resource to contain high diversity, investment in international services, transactions involving intellectual properties ( Aswathppa, 2008) , these definitions embraces the immense global companies with high scale operations and coalition ar ound the world, and the small companies which run low scale operations and may be only with one country. International business is the major key drive behind the raising for a lot of economies like China, India and Brazil, also the backbone for thousands of the multinational organisations. Increasingly, world business was shaped by the flow of goods, services and investments among countries under globalization perspectives. The dynamicity of the international business is accessible in two major ways; the international trade and the equities or investments, this paper will discuss in a critically approach these two major categories of international business in favour of free trade, with clarifying the costs and benefits of International trade and specialisation. 1-International trade The first pace to international trade is the Mercantilism that promote to posses more gold and silver by enlarge exporting and shrink importing by tariffs and quotas. But this approach pours the benefits only to one side of the trade neglecting the other side of the trade (Piggott, 2006). However, Mercantilism from Heckschers point of view is a system provides a confederation to the country (Haley, 1936) but, mercantilism does not show the ideal paradigm for free trade it advocated barriers for the foreign investments and does not encourage the competition which can lead to monopolism (Tuldar, 1987). The actual step towards international free trade was the absolute advantage by Smith and it substantiates that trade is a positive-sum game, there are gains for both dealers, opposing the mercantilism that see the trade is zero-sum game. The basic concept of smiths theory is specialisation should be given to the goods which produced efficiently, and certainly not turn out commodities that can purchase it in a lower cost. For example, Saudi Arabia has an absolute advantage in oil, according to Smith Saudi Arabia will specialise on producing oil and within trade Saudi Arabia will export oil and import goods that she can not produce it effectively. Smiths theory is oversimplified because he assumed that the labor is the only factor of production and labor is uniform, nevertheless labor is skilled and unskilled, and labor is not only the comparative factor of production (Piggott and Cook, 2006). Not only absolute advantage in one good can be profitable but also for all good, Ricardo stated in the comparative advantage theory that the trade is also profitable for the state by specialise in the most efficient production and import the goods are less resourceful in production, therefore, the international trade streams is determined by a countrys product that comparative to another country. By an empirical study by Neven to find out the comparative advantage between the European countries using the production factors, he concluded that labor presented the dominated advantage and human capital offered the solidest disadvantage (Neven, 1990:27). Some criticism faced the Ricardian model, for example, the assumption of transferring factors of production and this has limited possibility, the transportation cost and economies of scale were ignored by Ricardo and Smith (Chacholiades, 1990) Alternatively, Heckscher and Ohlin argue that the trade is based on the endowments or the factors of production (land, capital, labour). However, they agree with Ricardo about the lucrativeness of international trade. Consequently, the countries which have abundant of labour should be specialised in products like textile and shoes, and the countries which have abundant of land should produce land intensive goods such as corns and wheat. Therefore, these countries will export those goods because they have a comparative advantage in it, and rare factors dependant goods should be imported. H-O theory was tested by Leontief on the US exports and imports and regarding to H-O theory US is capital rich country it will export capital rich products and import for example labor intensive goods. But, as a result for his test in 1947 and 1951, he found that US imports were more capital intensive goods. However, this result varied with the same test in the 1970s (Piggott, 2006:40). Baldwin claimed that Leontiefs result, in that time was directed by the American tariffs and non-tariffs, like quotas and safety and health regulations and if it was against labor consummate goods so, the capital-consummate goods was the only way to trade with US moreover, he confirmed that the economists who was highly confidences of H-O theory was diminished by Leontief empirical result (Baldwin, 1971). Like H-O theory Leontief ignored the Human capital that considered as one of the factors of production. It displays the knowledge and skills for the labour therefore; human capital intensive goods fo r example computer software and aerospace could be one of the determinants of the trade. (Hill, 2006 global business today) While H-O and Leontief ignored technology, Product life cycle theory takes in the account the technology as a comparative advantage. In the high-tech countries this model put forward that any product starts to be new product to become standardised, in the last stage, where the dispersion and the adoption of innovations form other organisations, the product will be produced massively, and the necessity of shifting production to get a low cost location arise and steadily the production in the host country will start to export the same product to the Home country for the product. Similarly, because the rapid growth of the multinational organisations around the world, it might be favourable for the organisation to produce the new product from the host or the foreign country (Ajami et al., 2006) Focusing on the economic of scale is the main concept of the new trade theory. By adopting this theory the country can specialise in a limited rang of goods with a high scale of production to gain the low-cost production, and then the free trade will expand the market size beyond national boundaries. So the availability for producing a variety of goods and conducting low cost will attain reciprocally beneficial. However, for the industries that conduct a substantial share in the world demand by accomplish the economies of scale the trade will support a few of the organisation or the first entrants to this industries like aerospace industry. Since the fast growing of international business and according to the trade liberalization , the need for some standards was raised, Criterions for international trade was established to control and arrange the international trade therefore, the idea of World Trade Organisation (WTO) had raisin with a structure designed to offer the coordinated polices and support liberalization in the global market besides the free flow for goods and services (Hornsby, 2010).In addition General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to insure about the reduction of tariffs and quotas. Moreover, trade blocs were a significant movement towards free trade for example: EU, G20, APEC, NAFTA and CARENS GROUP. (BBC, 2005) Advantages and disadvantages for international trade and specialisation One of the main benefits of international trade is economic growth and this concept was proved by Edwards (1992), the study defined that international trade have a significant influence on growth, how can the developing countries as poor nations attract and adopt the technological progress from the industrial economies the study was based on 30 developing countries and appeared that the more opened and non restrictive trade policies the faster growth. In the same vein specialisation support the economic growth, the economic development can conduct by an efficient specialisation (Enright, 1996). Growth could happen in a long-standing by specialisation as a result of Page study on small mining centres in Canada (Page, 2002). International trade can improve the environment, Bhagwati stated that the economic growth will consequence an expansion in production therefore, the countrys revenue will increase as such the state can spend for improving the environment (Bhagwati, 1993).however, (Mullen et al., 2009) argued that developing countries turn over from agriculture to industrial activities and they may produce for example chemical products which cause absolute pollution. From another side, the more production and the more exporting the more revenues that can spend to improve the environment. For example Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) that signifies in the first phases of the growth it is obvious the dilapidation for the environment and this degradation will decrease by the rising in the income (Gryz, 2008).Hence this could be a benefit and a cost in the same time for international trade. The increases of international trade and in turn the economic growth will raise the gross national product as a result it will recuperating the individual freedom (Mullen et al., 2009) furthermore, higher levels of educations will be an outcome also new initiatives and individual freedom(Mullen et al., 1996 cited in Mullen, 2009) Advance physical quality of life correlated to International trade, according to a study run by (Mullen et al., 2009) importing enhance PQOL since the importing process will increase the supply then decrease the prices so the individuals can satisfy easily they essential needs therefore importing enhance PQOL . But increasing exporting will increase the demand in the country and then will rise the prices consequently it will be difficult for the individuals to satisfy their vital requirements will increasing exports will lessen PQOL. Source: (Mullen et al., 2009) From the environmentalists shore there is a significant drawback for international trade, they see that the more international trade the more pollution, and the more progress of technology the more utilization of the natural resources and deforestation this confirmed by Gryz in a study focusing on the developing countries that international trade contribute in air pollution by enlarge the emissions of CO2 and SO2 (Gryz, 2008). Specialisation as the key driver for the international trade, it can enlarge production of products and services and consequently high quality with lower cost. Specialisation will increase the size of the market resemble international trade which make the option for conducting the economic of scale clear. Consequently, the competition will be a vital element which result low prices for individuals. From the other side, specialisation could bring risks. Using specialisation very excessively is able to bring inflation (Watkins, 1963 cited in Clower and beer 2009). Moreover, specialisation can affect inadequately on the stability of the economy (Barkly et al., 1999). 2-Equities The second category of the international business is equities which composing of: foreign direct investments (FDI) and foreign portfolio investments (FPI) 2-1 foreign portfolio investment (FPI) The investments by individual, firms or public bodies in foreign financial instrument like bonds and stocks or other financial assets and the portfolio proportion in the total foreign equity is less than 10% (Hill, 2006) without managing or controlling these investments. Although most of the barriers were fallen in favor of international business, the foreign portfolio investment is tremendously limited; Kang and Stulz justify this phenomenon that most of the investment was held by the domestic investors raising the home-bias issue as a determinant of FPI. (Kang and Stulz, 1995) Two main obstacles facing the FPI: First, political threat in the foreign market and the caution from impound the shares or the potentialities to return the investments so that, we find the majority investors in FPI are home residents. However, the risk in the short-term money market is less than the FPI equity because is more liquidity with low cost. Second, information asymmetric, Kang and Stulz stated the positive relationship between information and investments if the foreign investor has less information he will invest fewer. FPI could be a good source for foreign investors if they familiar with these investments abroad like the weighty exporters, and they concluded that the more organisations export the more shares possessed by foreign investors (Metro, 1987). In addition, Razin and Goldstein see the information problem arises when the investors need to sell the shares in advance, therefore the investors will go through the FPI if their probability to get liquidity shock fewer and invest in the FDI if they are less expected to get liquidity shock (Goldstein and Razin, 2006), liquidity shock could be considered a determinant for FPI. 2-2 foreign direct investment (FDI) FDI is the investment that happen directly in production or other facilities in a foreign country over Which it has effective control. (Shenkar and Luo, 2004) The main important feature that differentiates between FDI and FPI is control over the assets in the foreign countries by the affiliates, supporting these affiliates with management team locating near the selected market, therefore the decisions that related to this market will be effective. There are three types for FDI: First, Greenfield investment, and this form occurs when the company decides to start a new business in a foreign country. Second, mergers and acquisitions by merging with the local companies in the host countries or acquiring companies in the host market this, this is the widespread element to FDI, M As share in FDI raised from 80% in 1997 (UNCTAD, 2007).However, it is argued that MA will diminish the competition because there is no add to the capital, but the supporter for this pattern argued that MA is mainstay to stand in the global competition by insert new technologies and new management strategies (Shenkar and Luo, 2004:78) Third, reinvestment by using the profits in the foreign markets to make further investments. FDI theories Product life cycle theory, the same theory of international trade. Internalization theory, the way that the diffused operations in the foreign countries internalized by unified governance structure, it argues that because the deficiency of the intermediate products the internalization will create contracting. However, Shenkar and Luo see that the internalization a way to gain from intra-organizational system. (Shenkar and Luo, 2004:62) The Eclectic paradigm, this theory show the joint of microeconomic of the firm and macroeconomic of international trade by perceiving three interdependent factors: ownership specific factors like tangible assets and intangible assets, location specific factor like endowments and countries policies and internalization. It argued that this theory is broad-spectrum and does not propose a macro clarification for FDI and its factors is not reliant. Dunning the founder of the theory replied that he presented a general framework with interdependence level, and from a perspective of the country level he provides a macro-analysis of FDI. (Piggott and Cook, 2006) Reasons for FDI Penetrating the foreign market could be with exporting, licensing or FDI. Companies adopting FDI rather than exporting to keep away from the tariffs and quotas that imposed by host markets, and avoid the high transportation cost especially with the low value-to- weight ratio goods for example, cement products. Also firms choose FDI than licensing (allow certain foreign firms to produce home firms product and gain fees on each product) because the licensing does not give the stiff control over the production or marketing also, licensing could be a way to present a significant technological idea to a likely foreign rivals. (Hill, 2006) Increase sales and profits in the foreign markets is main reason for FDI most of the firms to fulfill considerable profits in the foreign markets especially if the local firms are not able to gratify the demand of goods and services, for example, Intel corporation, Coca Cola, Wal-mart, Carrefour, Pepsi Cola, CEMEX, Aflac and a lot of them. But there is a criticism on most of these opportunities seized in the same area for example Wal-mart has 72.36% (Wal-mart, annual report 2010) of his stores only in North America. Tesco has 73% (Tesco annual report 2009) of his Stores in Europe. Reducing costs is another motive for FDI, seeking for the low-cost production is crucial aspects for gaining profits so, firms decide to go through the foreign markets to accomplish low labor cost especially in the developing countries Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America. Moreover, low material cost, low power cost and low transportation cost. Acquiring a place in the powerful economic community like EU in Europe, NAFTA In North America and ASEAN in Asia, could be very profitable to a firm to gain alliance in one those blocs without any restrictions besides the entrants firms can acquire new technological and managerial concepts by observing and analysis the top competitors in the market. (Rugman and Collinson, 2006) Mostly the FPI located in the developed countries than developing countries because: first, the unambiguousness in the developed economics makes the FPI efficient. Second, FDI will not be profitable in the atmosphere of the high production cost of developed countries. So, FDI located in the low-cost environments apparently the developing countries. From an empirical study by Razin and Goldstein they stated that FPI is more volatility and more withdrawal rates that FDI. (Goldstein and Razin, 2006) Conclusion International business with its both significant categories: international trade and equities created an evolution in the global business. While the mercantilism established the theory on base of the restrictions to gain economic-political power, the follow theories stated that international trade is beneficial game and the key driver is specialisation with awareness of the control of inflows and outflows of goods and services (Warburton, 2010) through WTO, GATT or trade blocs. Equities was shaped with FPI and FDI, FPI is limited, less controlled and provides the investors with fast liquidity investments and FDI has the big share of equities and depend on control and management. The significance of these topics rises in its consequences. In other words the economic growth and quality of life for some of the developing countries attributed to international business. Vaghefi M., Paulson S. and Tomlinson W. (1991) International business theory and practice. New York: Taylor and Francis New York Inc. Piggott J. and Cook M. (2006) International Business Economics, a European Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Haley, B. (1936) Heckscher, Mercantilism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics.50 (2) pp. 347-354 Tuldar R. (1987)subsidy polices for production automation mercantilism and liberalism revisited. Comparative Political Studies.20 (2) pp. 192-228 Baldwin R. (1971)Determinants of The Commodity structure of US Trade. The American Economic Review.61 (1) March pp.126-146 BBC (2005) BBC News: Business. Available at: [Accessed 28th Oct 2010] Hornsby D. (2010)WTO effectiveness in resolving transatlantic trade-environment conflict. Journal of international trade law and policy. 9 (3), pp. 297-309 Warburton C. (2010)International trade law and trade theory. Journal of international trade law and policy.9(1) pp.64-82 Edwards S. (1992) Trade orientation, distortion and growth in developing countries, journal of development economics.39 (1) pp.31-57 Beer A. and Clower T. (2009) Specialisation and Growth: Evidence from Australias Regional Cities. Urban studies. 46(2) pp.369-389 Mullen et al., (2009) Effects of International Trade and Economic Development on Quality of Life. Journal of Macromarketing. (29)3 pp.244-258 Gryz A. (2008) Economic growth, international trade and air pollution: A decomposition analysis. Ecological Economics.68 (5) pp.1329-1339 Riley G. (2006) Economics: As markets and market system. Available at [Accessed 29th Oct 2010]. Kang J. and Stulz R. (1997) Why is there a home bias? An analysis of foreign portfolio equity ownership in Japan. Journal of Financial Economics.46 (1) pp.3-28 Merton, R.C., 1987. A simple model of capital market equilibrium with incomplete information. Journal of Finance 42(1) pp. 483 510 Goldstein I. and Razin A. (2006) An information-based trade off between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment. Journal of international economics.70 (1) pp.271-295 Chacholiades, M. (1990) international economics. New York: McGraw Hill Neven D. (1990) EEC integration towards 1992: some distributional aspects. Economic policy. 5(1) pp.13-62 UNCTAD (2007) World investment report 2007.transnational corporations, extractive Industries and development. United Nations. Ajami R. et al. (2006) International Business: trade and theory. New York: M.E. Sharp Inc. Aswathappa K. (2008) International Business (3ed). 3rd ed. Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Company Limited.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

International marketing management Essay

‘Self- Reference Criterion’ 1. Define problem or goals in terms of home-country cultural traits, habits and norms 2. Define problem or goals in terms of foreign cultural traits, habits and norms 3. Isolate the SRC influence in the problem and examine it carefully to see how complicates the problem 4. Redefine the problem without the SRC influence and solve for the foreign market Self-reference criterion (SRC) as an unconscious reference to ones own cultural values, experiences and knowledge as a basis for decisions. The SRC impedes the ability to assess a foreign market in its true light. For example, Americans may perceive more traditional societies to be â€Å"backward† and â€Å"unmotivated† because they fail to adopt new technologies or social customs, seeking instead to preserve traditional values. In the 1960s, a supposedly well read American psychology professor referred to India’s culture of â€Å"sick† because, despite severe food shortages, the Hindu religion did not allow the eating of cows. The psychologist expressed disgust that the cows were allowed to roam free in villages, although it turns out that they provided valuable functions by offering milk and fertilizing fields. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one’s culture to be superior to others. The important thing here is to consider how these biases may come in the way in dealing with members of other cultures. Self-reference criterion importance to a marketing firm planning to enter international markets for the first time. Importance of Self-reference criterion as a topic of research Self-reference is a topic whose theoretical foundations have so far primarily been studied in the context of logic, the philosophy of language, systems theory, and post-modern culture. In computer science it has been a topic in the context of the recursively of Turing machines. In semiotics, there have been only few studies which have dealt explicitly with this topic, although marginal reflections on self reference can occasionally be found in the context of the theory of reference. Levels and degrees of self-reference criterion: Examples from advertising Just as signs may self-referentially refer to the world of signs, the media may refer to the world of the media in a self-referential manner. Citations, intertextuality, intermediality, met textual references, repetitions, recursions, and references to the communicative situation are some of the symptoms of self-reference in the media. Various degrees of self-reference must be distinguished, from the sign that refers to nothing but itself to the sign that refers only partially to itself and partially still to something else. Furthermore, self reference occurs at different levels of the message in which it occurs. Beginning with the smallest elements of the message, the first three levels of self-reference are derived from Peirce’s trichotomy of the interpret ant: 34 rheumatic (equivalent to the unit of a word), dicentic (equivalent to a proposition), and argumentative self-reference. In extension of this Peircean triad, textual, intertextual, intermedial and communicative self-reference will be distinguished. Communicative self-reference criterion Communicative self-reference pertains to pragmatics, the situation of text production and reception. The roles of the readers or the spectators and the enunciative roles of the authors, the producers, the actors or the players become the topic of the message. Instead of presenting or representing ideas or events in the world beyond the message, the text deals with its own communicative context, its communicative function, and its presuppositions. The text has thus its own pragmatic dimension as its topic. For example, the audience of a film is reminded of the fact that it is participating in the film while sitting in the film theatre. 38 Peter Greeanway’s actors that step out of their role as actors and mingle with the audience, or Alfred Hitchcock, who steps out of the role of a film producer to become an actor are further examples of communicative self-reference. B) International marketer must have knowledge of sub cultural groups Introduction Culture is concerned with social behaviour and attitudes, and this paper aims to highlight its significance for entry into foreign markets. Culture has been defined as â€Å"the integrated sum total of learned behaviour traits that are manifest and shared by members of a society†. Cultural factors have been itemized in the existing literature, but clearly among the most important are: customer beliefs and attitudes; morality, ethics and religion; social and consumption values; language and literature; social systems and social behaviour (especially the family); historical background; arts and aesthetics. Two authoritative studies have identified concepts of culture both as barriers to entry and as dynamic movers (Herkovits, 1970, Clutterbuck 1980). Furthermore, insufficient research attention has focused on defining more conceptual approaches to the internationalization of retailing and there is an even greater paucity of research into strategies for retailer entry modes; this is the main justification for this paper. In researching their approach to overseas markets, retailers must consider that culture can have an impact on their merchandising and promotion. The culture in which a person lives affects his/her consumption patterns and also the meaning that is attached to specific products. When promoting merchandise in a new culture, it is easier initially to appeal to existing culture requirements or expectations than to try to change them. Merchandising and promotion must be sensitive to the basic values of the country and the differences in patterns of consumption. Case Example (1) Entry into the Swiss Market In Switzerland, foreign dishwasher manufacturers and retailers expected the same rapid sales they had first obtained in other West European markets; but sales in Switzerland were so slow that research had to be done to find out why (this research should, of course, should have been done before, not after, market entry). The research showed that the Swiss housewife had a different set of values to, for example, her French and English counterparts; she was very conscious of her role as strict and hardworking, and her responsibility for the health of her family. To the Swiss housewife dishwashers simply made life easy, and this conflicted with her Calvinistic work ethic. As a result of this research, dishwasher manufacturers had to change their advertising – promoting, instead of ease-and convenience, hygiene-and-health. They did this by emphasizing that because dishwashers used temperatures higher than hand hot the process was more hygienic than washing up by hand. Thereafter retailers had no problem selling automatic dishwashers in Switzerland. Source: Author Cultures across countries High context culture – the meaning of individual behaviour and speech changes depending on the situation – nonverbal messages are full of important meaning (Read between the lines) – e. g. Saudi Arabia and Japan, written contracts are not always enforceable as new people move into executive positions (Chile, Mexico) Low context culture – intentions are expressed verbally – the situation does not change the meaning of words – e. g. India, China, Australia, New Zealand Cultural Assessment International retailers need to communicate meaning through the transmission of messages to people of different cultures if they are to succeed in the promotion of their products to enter foreign markets. Misunderstandings caused by cultural differences can seriously damage the image of a firm or product; therefore, in order to ensure the message transmitted is received in its correct form, the retailer needs to be completely aware of the implications of all the elements of the message in the foreign culture. Failure on behalf of the retailer to adapt to the intricacies of national customs and develop a rapport will lead to inadequate market entry strategies. Accurate communications are so vital that any risk of cultural misunderstanding needs to be eliminated. Firms must identify key management positions and insist that they are held, whenever possible, by someone of the same culture. Many firms make the mistake of putting nationals from the parent companies in charge of key positions within their foreign subsidiaries, often on the basis that fluency in the language is sufficient. In attempting to understand the most significant elements of the foreign culture, companies have to be vigilant and ensure a balance is maintained. There is no one method to adopt in the evaluation of other cultures for retailing purposes as the nature of the goods being offered should govern the method of assessment. The retailer must be sufficiently perceptive and guard against the over-exaggeration of the differences or the similarities between the foreign culture and its own. For example, in analyzing the United States market, a UK retailer may overemphasize a perceived common culture stemming from the common language and close political and economic relations. â€Å"A common language cannot indefinitely set the seal on a common culture when the geographical, political and economic determinants of the culture are no longer the same throughout its area. † The withdrawal of Marks and Spencer from the Canadian market in 1999 is a case in point; their precept was that the aforementioned â€Å"perceived† cultural affinity would facilitate acceptance of the St Michael brand name; in short the common language or heritage does not guarantee a common culture. A further complication in determining the important facets of a country’s culture is the existence of more than one culture or sub-culture within many nations world-wide. Table 1 lists a few states with cultural differences based along linguistic groupings and the problems these present to the international retailer. A cultural assessment will reveal a modal pattern, but a truly useful evaluation will also expose considerable variations within a group or a subset group. In fact, for some cultural characteristics, there may be a wider range within a given society than between societies. For example, young professional 25-30 year olds in Spain, France and Italy may have more in common, in terms of values, tastes and aspirations, than with their non-professional compatriots of the same age group. A cultural evaluation can be either static or dynamic. A static assessment serves only to identify the differences in variables between cultures, whereas a dynamic appraisal seeks to indicate which variables will change in the future, in what order and with what speed. For the international retailer, the identification of which changes would be readily accepted or rejected can mean the difference between success or failure. The analysis of a culture to ascertain the peculiarities of the population can be extremely expensive, time-consuming and unwieldy. Therefore, having conducted a rapid survey of key cultural elements of a nation, the international retailer with limited resources may choose to carry out a Partial Cultural Assessment which focuses on key elements fundamental to the success of its operations in any country. Table 2 shows several cultural factors, which could frustrate the progress of the operations in the event of a retailer failing to obtain accurate data from the assessment of the foreign markets; if a single element is incorrectly assessed, the effectiveness of the strategies will be diminished.

Friday, January 10, 2020

The Meaning of Aristotle Essay Topics

The Meaning of Aristotle Essay Topics Matter and form are parts of substances, but they aren't parts that you're able to divide at any technology. Since something cannot exist at all if it doesn't have any properties or activities whatsoever, prime matter doesn't exist. Aristotle stated that man proved to be a political animal by nature and therefore couldn't avoid the challenges of politics. The surprising thing about philosophy is it is remarkably user-friendly if you take it in smallish doses. It is truly a good tragedy of an excellent tragic hero. It is essential for the poet to visualize every one of the scenes when creating the plot. No superb soul is exempt from a combination of madness. Hamlet commits a string of errors which become the reason for his tragedy. Courage is among those virtues necessary to living a superior life. If you're contemplating taking some form of risk, courage may need you to find out more about the issue before acting recklessly. In result, it is clear that Hamlet isn't a fiery individual. Hamlet does not look light tempered, but it's very fit for Othello. Happiness can be attained if an individual leads a superior life. Simply, what makes one person happy does not absolutely make another individual happy. A person could acquire bad, in addition to good habits. He is not born virtuous, although at the time of birth, a person is born with the senses. Most Noticeable Aristotle Essay Topics According to Kant, the only thing which is good without qualification is a great will. It'll be self-evident once you are confronted with a decision that demands courage. For Aristotle it's very important to know the objective of something so as to comprehend how to live ethically particularly human beings. Inside my opinion such banishment wasn't in his favour. Friendship is basically a partnership. Happiness isn't good without qualification. If it is activity in accordance with excellence, it is reasonable that it should be in accordance with the highest excellence. The main objective of Aristotle's philosophy was supposed to find a universal reasoning approach. Aristotle's financial doctrine was based on the grounds that slavery was a pure phenomenon and have to always be the basis of production. There's another point in Aristotle's argument which can be faulty. Let's start with a couple of thoughts from Aristotle. Absolutely free Aristotle essay samples are offered on FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. The essay isn't the simplest task to master. With FreeEssayHelp you'll find hundreds of Aristotle essay topics in a matter of many seconds. Totally free Aristotle Poetics essay samples can be found FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. Aristotle's objective was supposed to think of a universal procedure for reasoning that would enable man to learn every conceivable thing about reality. Aristotle mentioned that Efficient cause is the most important supply of change. The philosopher is always open to new ideas and is unlikely to use conventional procedures that do not suit the circumstance. Rather it was the endeavor of politics to make order on the planet. Just take a peek at how you're including learning in your everyday life. Some individuals argue that the world is a completely random location, and there's no real evidence of purpose or order within it. There are a number of ways to approach this situation. Speech isn't fulfilling its function unless it's clear. The aim of debate is a practical one, to discover the result of an issue or suggestion to boost quality of life.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Effects of the French Revolution - 1136 Words

The French Revolution’s Effects on Europe The effects of the French Revolution were political, social, economic, and religious. Europe was devastated and overjoyed by a revolution that happened in only France. There were many ways people rebelled which changed and affected Europe in different areas. A new political government began to form; borders of cities and countries were redrawn on European maps. Social effects included equality of the people and enlightenment of many citizens. The Bank of France developed economically along with simpler tax systems. Religious beliefs and traditions varied as Napolà ©on reformed the clergy. The effects of the French Revolution were political, social, economic, and religious. The French†¦show more content†¦People all around Europe began to think in different ways because of the revolution in France. Different countries started to encounter thoughts about overthrowing their leaders as well. The French established groups and associations that talked about new ideas and constitutions.14 These meetings and ideas went against the will of the king and had never been thought of until the revolution began to occur. State-sponsored schools were brought about by the document, the Concordat (1801).15 The schools boosted the levels of knowledge and wisdom of the people and increased the king’s rage. Peoples’ actions of enlightenment were a great result of the French Revolution and shaped the way we live today. The French Revolution created a much easier economy for the French. On July 15, 1801, Napolà ©on came upon an agreement with the Pope known as The Concordat.16 This agreement brought about simpler tax systems for the French.17 The taxations had been unfairly applied to only the third estate. When the people began to be enlightened, this was one of the things they noticed and wanted it to change immediately. The Bank of France also developed.18 People used to bury their money underground, the bank made it easier to store it. The French could also take out loans via the bank. The Concordat, a result ofShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Na tionalism In The French Revolution1501 Words   |  7 Pages meant people of the same origin, the most common criteria for a nation were shared a language and history†. In case of France, the nationalism force was very effective and inevitable during the French revolution 1789. It was a great historical event brought many changes in France. Before the revolution, France was controlled by Ancient regime in which common people have had not freedom and rights. 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