Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Max Weber’s Bureaucracy Essay

Good afternoon ladies and gentleman. This afternoon I would like to talk a little about Max Weber’s Bureaucracy. But first, let me tell you an article I read in the newspaper issued a couple of months ago. On January 21, 2013, Orlan Calayag was sworn in as the new National Food Authority administrator after Angelito Banayo resigned from his seat because of being accused of corruption and rice smuggling. Anyway, let’s get back to the point. Calayag is a dual citizen caregiver who used to reside in America. When PNoy appointed Calayag as the new administrator of the department, the most common reaction was: â€Å"Who? † According to Food authority’s Charter, or Presidential Decree 6, all administrators and deputy administrators of the agency shall be â€Å"natural-born citizens of the Philippines, not less than 35 years of age, with proven honesty and integrity and of recognized managerial competence. † And even though Republic Act 9225 exists, a person who assumes any government position should renounce his foreign citizenship first. This brought a lot of questions and objections. Calayag never became a government official until this January, never renounced his dual citizenship or does his previous work experience indicate â€Å"recognized managerial competence. † This scenario leads us to the so called KKK which brings us to Max Weber’s idea of Bureaucracy. I would like to emphasize three characteristics of bureaucracy. First, Division of labor and work specialization is used to align employees with their tasks. With this said, Calayag and President Aquino defies the ‘work specialization’ point because Calayag doesn’t specialize anything that may be related to the tasks and works of an NFA administrator. Next would be Weber’s, Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees to promote fair and equal treatment of all employees so that unbiased decisions can be made. How could this actually exist or happen between PNoy and Calayag when in the first place, PNoy appointed Calayag because he is his friend? And finally, competence, not personality, is the basis for job appointment. Calayag finished a degree in Business Administration major in Business Marketing and his CV states that indeed he was a â€Å"Patient Services Specialist† or a caregiver. There is also the fact that Calayag can’t seem to find a permanent job – hopping from one job to another ending up connected to 6 different companies in a span of 8 years. So in the end, my dear listeners, this becomes another case of ‘kabarkada’ appointment made by the President.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Explain how Dickens conveys setting, character and atmosphere in the opening chapter of ‘Great Expectations’

In the opening chapter of ‘Great Expectations' Dickens draws upon a wealth of literary devices which range from the carefully selected word to a rather grand style of writing in long, complex sentences. He focuses these literary devices on conveying setting, character and atmosphere which enable the reader to have a entertaining, fictional experience. Immediately, in the first line the reader realises who the main character is and begins to build a picture of him. The reader is conscious of an older narrator looking back on his childhood when the following line announces: â€Å"I called myself Pip, and came to be called Pip.† As the first chapter is all about â€Å"Pip† it is appropriate that readers should be able to envisage the main character who will transport them to a Victorian childhood. In the second paragraph the reader deduces that Pip is very imaginative as from the â€Å"shape of the letters† on his father's gravestones he has formed an image of a â€Å"square, stout, dark man with curly black hair.† It's important that the reader understands at this early stage that Pip's imagination has such a hold over him as later on in the chapter. It explains why Pip obeys the convict and is so frightened of him. The young boy is in thrall to his child-like imagination. The setting of the novel is closely associated with the main character as is revealed by the line: â€Å"ours was the marsh country†. The word â€Å"ours† is not simply a pronoun; it gives the reader the impression that he has always lived there like the generations. The word suggests he feels, even as an adult looking back on his childhood, somewhat proprietorial about the marshes. In short, the marshes were his homeland or heartland. The memory of that day at the marshes is described as â€Å"vivid and broad.† These words give the reader the impression that what happened was something unforgettable that stood apart from all of Pip's other memories in the way that vivid colours stand out and you remember them better. The word â€Å"broad† signifies a lot of things happened in the short space of time. Dickens goes on to describe the day as â€Å"raw† which initially seems to contradict the word â€Å"vivid† however it reinforces the idea that the day was memorable. The word is an interesting choice as it is often associated with cold and unpleasant experiences as opposed to â€Å"vivid† which makes one think of reds and oranges which are warm and cosy. . The area around Pip is a â€Å"bleak place overgrown with nettles†. Dickens' words seem to be chosen deliberately. â€Å"Bleak† is important as all the next paragraph is going to be about how desolate this area is and how Pip is alone where as the word â€Å"nettles† makes the reader think of being stung. When you're stung by a nettle you remember it because it hurts like Pip remembers this day. Throughout the opening chapter Dickens uses noun phrases to describe â€Å"scattered cattle†, â€Å"broken shoes† and â€Å"high tombstones† These enhance his description of place and in the â€Å"wilderness† of the marshes, the reader builds up a picture of there being nothing else there which makes it appear a very lonely setting where one may have to fight to survive. In effect the description of the setting foreshadows the fight for survival the prisoner will have, mentally and physically. Furthermore, the single word â€Å"wilderness† also has another connotation i.e. the marshes reflect Pip's inner feelings. Pip is â€Å"dark† inside as he has no happiness. He's a working boy whose parents and brothers have died which makes him â€Å"flat† as he has no highs or lows The setting and atmosphere link incredibly closely with one and another and without Dickens excellent description of the setting the reader would be unable to build such an atmosphere which engages their mind and senses building up fear and suspense. The reader understands Pip is alone however being alone can be very beautiful, peaceful and relaxing but the reader creates the scared atmosphere after Dickens adds the adverbial phrases and noun phrases like â€Å"place overgrown with nettles†, â€Å"dark, flat wilderness†, â€Å"low leaden line†, â€Å"distant savage lair†, and â€Å"wind was rushing†. All of these are dark, frightening phrases which don't describe any beauty. The description of the sea as a â€Å"distant savage lair† is also a very good description of what the marshes are to the convict. A â€Å"lair† is somewhere an animal often â€Å"savage† lives and the convict is living in the marshes and he is like an animal as he's uneducated and eats â€Å"ravenously† as well as having a â€Å"savage† mind and temperament for he makes threats involving blood (â€Å"savage† and blood are closely linked) and is physical unkind turning Pip upside down. The key thing about a â€Å"lair† is the fact it conceals the animal and the convict is much concealed as prior to him just appearing Pip is unaware anyone else is there; this links with â€Å"distant† as at that point any threat to Pip is very â€Å"distance† in his mind as he is believing that he's alone. The convict â€Å"started up from among the graves† is how his entrance is described but the words â€Å"started up† mirror and foreshadow how something else is starting up and that is Pip's change in fortune. â€Å"Started up† is also different and unusual in this context as it would normally be used for a car or a mechanical thing not a person. The difference between people and mechanical things are people have feelings and at this point in the story the convict is being portrayed as a cold man who doesn't seem to have feelings or concern for anything just gets on with life. Before the reader develops a sense of sympathy for the convict, his mannerisms make a reader afraid of him and understand why Pip as a small boy would have followed his orders. He never talks without issuing commands. His first spoken word is usually an imperative verb which gives the reader the impression the convict will not tolerate disobedience. The sentence, â€Å"Hold your noise!† hints at the convict's concern not to be discovered. He is a â€Å"fearful man† and a long descriptions of the convict follows in which Dickens uses a string of adverbial phrases to emphasise the dreaded physical condition of the convict who had been â€Å"†¦soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles †¦Ã¢â‚¬  In this way, a picture of sustained suffering is created that arouses the sympathy of the reader. Pip is under the sole control of the convict and has no room to negotiate with a man who is â€Å"so sudden and strong†. He has to do what the convict says for fear of the verbal threats becoming true and these are forced more on him by the convict's unkind physical treatment including turning Pip â€Å"upside down†. This re-enforces the frightening atmosphere to the reader as reading between the lines they see Pip has no way of escaping. When Pip speaks he does so in Standard English e.g. â€Å"My sister †¦ wife of Joe Gargery, the blacksmith.† In contrast the convict uses slang â€Å"pint† and â€Å"mind to't† and sometimes then he doesn't pronounce words right – he says â€Å"wittles† instead of â€Å"victuals†. Dickens endears Pip in the way to a middle-class audience. Dickens use repetition several times but changes it slightly each time he uses it. Sometimes he just repeats the exact same sentence â€Å"He tilted me again†¦He tilted me again†¦He tilted me again.† This reinforces the point he is making of the convict having control over Pip and builds the reader's feelings even higher creating more of a frightening atmosphere. At other times his repetition is slightly changed by singular words, this links the second part back to the first and the reader is able to build a stronger link between the two. A good example of this is â€Å"partly, to keep myself upon it; partly, to keep myself from crying.† here the reader sees how both bits are about the same issue, Pip holding onto the tombstone, and receives a better description of why he's doing it but by the repetition the link between them is strengthened. The final description of the setting refers to â€Å"horizontal lines† of â€Å"red† and â€Å"black†. Using â€Å"lines† is a really good description as â€Å"lines† are very insignificant to many people just like this area is insignificant so no-one hardly comes but without lines nothing would be in the world or happen. As lines form the foundations of letters which allow communication, lines are seen everywhere like on roads and things are built with lines – classroom desk edges are straight lines; and without Pip being a little line figure â€Å"intermixed† with all these other lines he wouldn't of met the convict, who therefore couldn't of been his benefactor which means Pip wouldn't of formed the foundations for his journey in becoming a gentleman. The first line description of a â€Å"long black horizontal line† is very significant in the fact it's very plain and simple and that reflects how the marshes were now, they were just simply plain marshes again. However it also reflects how Pip felt and how his life was just one â€Å"long line† that so far had never changed. Furthermore it also singles a slight change in the atmosphere although there is still the â€Å"frightening† threat of the â€Å"young boy† all the high drama has stopped so the reader can take a step back and is able to think about what just happened. Dickens uses similes in his writing to add extra description and allow the reader to imagine better. The use of a simile is very useful for describing the â€Å"beacon† as many readers may not have known what Dickens was talking about especially if they lived in the city but by saying it was â€Å"like an unhooped cask upon a pole† they are fully able to visualise what it is. So as well as telling a great story Dickens is also introducing his readers to new words. In addition Dickens talks about the convict â€Å"as if he were the pirate come to life,† by using a metaphor he's adding yet a different literary tool. In fact using the tool of a metaphor is very good as they create an image the reader can relate to and remember easily. But Dickens didn't just use any metaphors he carefully selected them using key words such as â€Å"pirate† which relates back to what he's talking about – the gibbet. â€Å"Pirates† are also scary and people that threaten others to get what they want just as the convict is a â€Å"fearful† person and has threatened Pip to get food. â€Å"But, now I was frightened again, and ran home without stopping.† is a fabulous final line which makes the reader hungry for more. This sentence sums up the entire chapter well as it relates back to Pip previously being frightened when it says â€Å"frightened again† however it leaves you very much on a cliff-hanger wanting to know if Pip gets home safely and if he returns with food for the convict. This was one of Dickens preferred styles as he wrote in episodes but now when they are all put together it forms something excellent as you read stories within a story. In general, Dickens' style of writing in incredibly long sentences helps set the atmosphere of there being something more to this story than meets the eye, this allows the reader's mind to work overtime and read between the lines. Sentences like â€Å"A man who had been soaked in water †¦ as he seized me by the chin.† and â€Å"On the edge of the river †¦ which had once held a pirate.† also helps build a clearer picture in the readers mind. All the sub-clauses in the sentences as well give Dickens plenty of time to describe every fraction of detail about the setting or a characters appearance which if you can give the text your full attention without any distractions transport you very easily into this world therefore you don't watch it like a movie but live it like a life. Sub-clauses in long sentences such as â€Å"soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones.† are dramatised by the use of commas before the word and. You would not think, especially not in today's modern world, that there should be a comma before the word and however Dicken's deliberately chose to do this. As by having the commas the reader has to slow down when reading the long sentences which gives them chance to digest what they have just read and it sinks into their head more. But in addition it also holds the reader in suspense, only for a couple of seconds, but in that time they build up an urge to read on. In conclusion, the opening chapter sets up the book as an incredibly worthwhile read which seems to semi-autobiographical and concerned with making a commentary on life, childhood and the class system of Victorian England. In order to express his views through a best-selling novel he combined a range of elements including romance, mystery, crime, comedy and sentiment. It's paramount for the reader to deduce and infer these from the description of the setting, characters and atmosphere allowing them to get the most out of this magnificent book. The opening chapter is a curtain-raiser for the rest of the novel in which Dickens takes the reader back in time to experience a Victorian childhood.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Business Essays – Google Online Internet

Business Essays Google Online Internet Google Online Internet Google, Inc. is the world’s leading online search engine company founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were students at Stanford University and the company was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 7, 1998. Google’s business is related to Internet Search, web-based emailing, online mapping, office productivity, social networking and video sharing as well as advertising services like Adwords and Adsence. Founded at Menlo Park, CA on September 7, 1998 and now has head quarters at Mountain View, CA (â€Å"The Rise of Google†. USA Today). It is the largest American company (by market capitalization) that is not part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (as of October 31st, 2007). Google currently has16,805 full-time employees and Eric E. Schmidt, is the current CEO/Director of the company. Google is now traded on both NASDAQ and LSE. The first Google’s IPO took place on August 19, 2004. 19,605,052 shares were offered at a price of US$85 per share. The Google is the largest trading company on NASDAQ index with a revenue of US$16.593 billion, net income of US$4.203 billion, total assets of US$25.335 billion and total equity of US$22.689 billion (Financial Data Quest, 2007). Google is listed as top 5 companies traded on NASDAQ with total volume as 6,557,543. Google gets its name from the word â€Å"Googol† which is the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros. Google is the most used search engine on the web with a 53.6% market share, ahead of Yahoo! (19.9%) and Live Search (12.9%) making Google has a market leader. The main revenue for Google, Inc. is the advertising application launched by Google called Adwords, where thousands of advertisers advertise there products and services. Started in the year 2000 Google Adwords is treated as flagship advertising product and main source of revenue. It offers Pay Per Click (PPC) advertising, and site-targeted advertising for both text and banner ads. Google has tremendous competition in the industry with Yahoo, Inc., MSN, AOL and others. Google, Inc. is vaulted to more than 6 Billion $ sales last year (Business Week, Estimation 2007). Google also faced a number of Law suits for Violation of trademark law and Click fraud. Google settled a click fraud lawsuit for US$90 million. In April 2002 a company called Overtune Services, Inc.(A Yahoo Company) sued Google for patent infringement for launching Adwords. Google agreeing to issue 2.7 million shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license under the patent. (Google, Yahoo bury the legal hatchet, Stefanie Olsen, CNET, August 9, 2004). II. Firm’s Current Situation – Internal Analysis Strengths of Google, Inc: Google is the current market leader with more than 53% share in the Search Engine and advertising industry, the factors that made possible to acquire this position are: Technology: Google uses high defined user e nd technology such as open source search, which enables easy and sharp search to customers. Google uses high speed servers which can tackle millions of searches a minute. The technology used by Google is also used by NASA and US Defense. This type of technology help customers to find relevant answers for there enquiries online, making Google the most trusted reliable search engine in the world.

Personal Growth Response Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Personal Growth Response Paper - Essay Example In lieu of these situations they motivate and develop strategic responses. While being effective leaders the CEOs must actively engage themselves in the realization of action-oriented plans. This meant that leaders are vision oriented whereas the manager is objective oriented. He further emphasized that a leader works under unstructured environment and the manager is facilitated by a semi-structured environment under well-defined policies and guidelines. This lead to an important decision in my life which was a choice between a leader and manager and I came to realize that why should one settle for a manager whose goal is, basically, to maintain the status quo Thus I came to recognize that the true task of a leader is to reinvent strategies so that the organization and every person who works with him continuously become better. A leader should be flexible enough to be associated with the change in structure. To further explain this I would like to quote the example of Z.A. Bhutto explaining that Bhutto's downfall had come as a result of his inability to adapt to the changing political situation in the country. While the military and the U.S. backed out in supporting him, he persisted with his old policy eventually he failed. Therefore a leader needs to change oneself according to the environment and the structure. Sincerity: A leader has to be sincere to all stakeholders on all fronts ranging from

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Hunter S. Thompson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Hunter S. Thompson - Essay Example Unlike her teeth, reality has the power to bite. So have I and here comes Lola the lesbian with the pizza. Her boots thump and stomp up the stairs, shaking but not stirring the peace, momentarily. Lola's cool. She's kind, she knows the right people to score the best stuff, she shares. Lola's lonely, an angry, aging remnant of the Women's Movement. She's discarded it, but in truth, it discarded her. She was too loud, too active, too passionate, too public. Honesty was her worst policy. So here she is with her pristine apartment and pedigree pussycat, Comfort. And me, worn out, washed-up, woozy and unpredictable. Or am I But for now, just on the edge, the brink of a life, new and shiny or corroded and crusted with the rust of broken promises "Napkins, forks, here you go, sweetie" Lola croons. "Who the fuck eats pizza that way!" - but I hold the scream inside, there are larger issues at stake. I have a duty to be nice, for now. We need each other, we share a place, a history and a hatred of Bush/Blair. I know we will get to them, come what may, never mind the pepperoni, the buzz and the Bud. Like war, it's inevitable. I hold onto the buzz, see the lights but they become the nights of 'Shock and Awe', bigger lights, more impact, you know Am I myself or somebody else, and who gives a shit I go forward with Lola to Guantanamo Bay, hearing the voices of expert salesmen. "Yes we have a nice range of used cattle-prods, or if they don't appeal, how about some out of date sodium pentathol" Now ain't that their truth, the inhuman, dehumanized leaders of the civilized world. The anger rises, then subsides, Lola and me, we think on and speak on. "And Bush tells Blair: "If I put my hand in the fire, you must do it too, to prove you are my friend. If burning ash, cinders and shit fall on innocent bystanders, why, what the hell, it's the price they pay for us showing strength." And we are right to loathe and fear these creatures from the dark side. This bullshit hurts. Lola rolls another joint and the hiss and clink of beer and glass make it easy, like Sunday morning. I eat, I drink, I feel the need to expel these bastards from the vicinity. I don't want Lola's tears to dilute the purity of my anger. The poison of these creatures is enough to keep my resolve alive. But for now, let's party with warm love. There's Lola, the cat, the lights, the grass and me. A soft breeze, the comfort of kindred spirits, all anybody needs. A muted scream from over the way brings a shadow of fear to Lola's soft face. Eyebrows raised in alarm, old memories surface, she's going weird on me. I could show her weird, but I won't, keeping my scars to myself and feeling no pain. A sweeping swarm of locusts now encircle me, are in me, and time moves me onwards to the edge. The soft murmur of her voice forms the backdrop, but cannot drown them out. No matter, I want to finish it. The tide is high but I'm holding on, and ask myself why All I have fought for, all I believe in, destroyed, denigrated and demeaned. The American dream is now my waking nightmare. I could end this and wake up elsewhere. I bought the ticket. I will take the ride. She sighs, shifts, leans to plant a kiss on my head, and leaves to sleep. Thank Jesus she's gone, it's just me and my decision. Exciting, nerve-wracking, life-changing, no, life-ending. Another slice of pizza,

Saturday, July 27, 2019

DQ1 - Copyright Compensation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

DQ1 - Copyright Compensation - Essay Example Technological barriers would be represented by the high number of households being connected to the internet wirelessly, thus making it difficult to track down how levies should be charged, and peer to peer sharing that is not done via the Internet (e. g. sharing through portable media and memory drives) (Oksanen & Valimaki, 2005). Suggestions of putting levies on computer hardware themselves have been met with strong disapproval. This is because such an action may led to an unfair charging on people who require the computer hardware but has not intention of using such hardware for infringing copyright purposes. Thus, these consumers will actually be overcharged for something that they won’t use. It is quite clear that levies and value-added charges cannot exactly sustain their purpose in an age where people keep on thinking of ways to get things for free. Thus, rather than focusing on these alternative modes of compensation, the people concerned should be coming up with ways to somehow be lenient with the sharing of the information that they own and devise methods by which compensation will trickle in without having to label it as a â€Å"levy† or â€Å"value-added charge.† For example, the music industry may suffer from decreasing sales in records but that doesn’t mean the industry should suffer as well. Music personalities go on tours, engage in endorsement deals, and may even use the Internet to their advantage. With these efforts, the artists will be remunerated in a more appropriate level. In the literary industry, best-selling author Paulo Coelho actually publishes entire copies of his books on his blogs for free. Prior to this unorthodox move, Coelho was merely a locally known writer in his home country of Brazil. After publishing his book online and allowing consumers to read the entire book for free, sales of his books skyrocketed and a lot of his books have been best sellers ever since. Such an example illustrates that in the end, shared information will correspondingly remunerate the artist behind such products and ideas. Coelho realized that while a few people would probably endure reading an entire novel on their PC’s, a majority would still want to purchase a hard copy. And purchase they surely will as soon as they get to sample the product. As such, levies and value-added charges are not only infeasible, they are unnecessary as well. References: Liebowitz, S., & Watt, R. (2006). How to ensure best remuneration for creators in the market for music. Journal of Economic Surveys , 513-533. Oksanen, V., & Valimaki, M. (2005). Copyright levies as an alternative compensation method for recording artists and technological development. Review of Economic Research on Copyright Issues , 2 (2), 25-39. DQ2- An IP case Intellectual property is the ownership of information and it comes in different forms. Some of these are copyright, which protects the rights of people behind expression of information; patents protect the rights of those who invented a new commodity; and, trademarks protect symbols that are associated with a given product or company. When the use of any of these things are violated by non-makers of the information, owners may invoke their intellectual proper

Friday, July 26, 2019

Globalization and HRM Strategies Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Globalization and HRM Strategies - Assignment Example Technology is a critical tool in competition as it is essential in ensuring quality of goods and services. Though it means increase in production costs of the company, technology as a tool ensures increase in sales and product quality to meet the ever increasing/ growing consumer expectations and taste. Additionally, globalization has seen that a company like Sony improves greatly on its information and knowledge transfer which, much like technology is important in helping the company stay connected and informed of emerging customer preferences. Information therefore enables adaptation to trends and its quick and effective transmission has become vital in customer retention and growth hence. Different cultures of the world have very little effect and impact on Sony and unlike most other multinational corporations, Sony has managed to break the barriers of culture across the globe by producing a wide range of high quality, sophisticated and culturally acceptable goods and services. In addition, Sony’s policy of recruiting from any culture, age, gender and other such barriers puts it in a favorable position for worldwide appeal and acceptance. However, the financial and credit services offered by Sony, for example, may receive negative and little acceptance in other parts of the world. Islam, for instance, strictly forbids the use of usury. In such areas, the company may be viewed in bad light and rejected altogether. This is highly unlikely however as Sony offers a wide range of services and products and if one of them is found to be unpalatable in a certain culture, other products eventually override this ‘dislike’ altogether and firmly establishes Sony in the area. Just like cultures, labor markets are of very... This paper approves that different cultures of the world have very little effect and impact on Sony and unlike most other multinational corporations, Sony has managed to break the barriers of culture across the globe by producing a wide range of high quality, sophisticated and culturally acceptable goods and services. In addition, Sony’s policy of recruiting from any culture, age, gender and other such barriers puts it in a favorable position for worldwide appeal and acceptance. According to the paper the human resource department spends much time with the new recruits in bid to get them fully on board with the objectives and strategies of the company and is focused on universal standard employment offering superior working conditions and paying employees their locally relevant wages. Sony also offers management training to promising recruits. IHRM plays an important role in ensuring productivity of Sony. There are a series of undertakings that the IHRM could pursue to ensure improved productivity and competitiveness of Sony globally. Seminars that serve to enlighten employees further on consumer needs and improve service delivery could be brought on board. The paper comes to the conclusion that Problem solving groups are essential and swift solution of arising issues or any quarrels act to minimize employee infighting and the distractive and destructive office gossip thus creating the much needed and indispensable harmonious, smooth working environment.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

MODULE 4 DISSCUSSION Full Government Control in an Emergency Coursework

MODULE 4 DISSCUSSION Full Government Control in an Emergency - Coursework Example Thus, it is possible for the government to assume a major role in disaster control, but it does so within the law as provided by the Stafford Act. The government takes control of disaster control, not to limit the agencies or groups, but to ensure that the appropriate resources and are effected fast enough, and in an effective way. Through the Homeland security secretariat, the government takes control of disaster control management, while the agencies and groups respond within this overarching structure (Homeland Security, 2013) â€Å"Partnerships are an integral part of strengthening resilience, because they can help to increase efficiency and effectiveness in disaster management† (Busch, 2013, p. 2). Hence, in partnerships between the government and assisting agencies and groups, it is necessary that the government maintains full control during disasters. Doing so ensures that there is a hierarchical plan in the control of disasters. It also ensures that there the issue of accountability rests squarely on the government and not a large array of assisting groups and agencies (United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006). Homeland Security. (2013, May). National Response Framework. Retrieved from Federal Emergency Management Agency: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (2006). Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared : Special Report of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Together with Additional Views. Washington, DC: Government Printing

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Critiques Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Critiques - Essay Example Also, one may not know the limit of how much information the client should e given before they make a decision and hence may end up giving too much information. Before one can give consent, there are four elements of informed consent that a client needs to have. These are competence, voluntariness, full information and comprehension. A client must in all instances be able to consent to treatment without hindering factors. These factors include lack of adequate information or the inability to understand the information given since in most instances; it is expressed in some to understand medical jargon. In as much as a client could be willing allow the collection and keeping of information regarding them, there arises the question of confidentiality. Many at times, confidentiality of the right to privileged communication is breached. The fear of client’s information being shared with third parties is an enormous hindrance to successful medical services as clients may not be willing to give truthful of information regarding their conditions. More so, not all countries recognize the right of privileged communication and thus there is no guarantee of confidentiality. All medical practitioners are required to warn clients and their close affiliates of nay risks of infection, side effects associated with treatments or any harmful behavior of patients such as violence. This is quite contradictory in regard to confidentiality that should be enjoyed by clients. It may also be quite impossible to warn a dying patient on the harmful side effects of a drug when the best thing to do is save their lives. Some clients may be threatening to commit suicide hence calling for intervention and the need to warn the family members or other authorities in charge of them. Clients could have consented to treatment and record keeping believing that their information will be treated with confidentiality. However, cases may arise that call for access

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The learning journal entry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The learning journal entry - Essay Example The definition provided for leadership was the act of influencing others toward a goal. During the session most of the students found leaders in their parents, professors or other tutors and coaches. Through this discussion I learnt that it was important for students to have real life leaders as we can gain immense knowledge from them and their experiences will help us learn several life lessons. In addition to this I also learnt the formula for performance which was equal to ability plus motivation. Both these elements were required in order to bring out our best performance both in academics and in life. In case ability is absent, any amount of motivation will not matter; however when someone has outstanding ability but is not sufficiently motivated then their performance is bound to be affected. In order to build our ability every individual requires an aptitude or interest towards a task, and a right amount of training and resources that will improve their ability in a given task. Along with the above constant motivation will increase their desire and commitment towards the task. Motivation will help to build desire and interest towards the work and lead to goal-directed behavior. In short, when people desire something and are sufficiently motivated towards achieving it, they would automatically take all the actions that would lead them to their goal and remain committed towards it. Furthermore there are four main factors that are required for motivation namely ability, resource, information and support. For the rest of my management class I intend to be more committed and perform to the best of my ability. For instance, I should work towards understanding the content in the textbooks rather than merely memorizing them. I have come to realize that the sole purpose of education is not about getting high grades; rather it is about gaining as much knowledge as we

Skills of Social Work-Fact Finding Essay Example for Free

Skills of Social Work-Fact Finding Essay There are also factual questions involving the law, such as: What exactly are the procedures for removing an elected official from office? Who owns a particular piece of land? What are the legal rights that citizens have when accused of a crime? Moreover, whenever we do fact finding as student social workers, we need to look into; 1. Demography How many people live in this area? † is clearly a major factor in determining the demand for the particular problem. Other questions concern the density (how many people per square kilometer? and the age and sex distribution. How many elderly or sick people who may be handicapped in getting this problem? What are the rates for births and deaths (if known) and how do these compare to national figures? What are the rates and patterns of migration (is it seasonal or permanent? are the people moving in from other areas? ). These comparisons are important, as we need to know how typical any particular area is. 2. Environment â€Å"What is the physical area that we are dealing with? Is this clearly marked or should-it be arbitrarily defined? What resources (especially land, soils, and vegetation) are available? What is known about climate, water, slopes, drainage? 3. Historical â€Å"There are two good reasons for knowing at least the general outline of local history recognizing the significance of important places and major persons. First, the present can only be understood in relation to the past and second, local people regard their history as important, so it is both expedient and courteous to know something about significant events. 4. Community† We are studying a community of people, the most important part of which is the relatively stable set of relationships between the people relationships between men and women, old and young, neighbours, kinsmen, in-laws, landlords and tenants, rich and poor, and so on. 5. Domestic â€Å"It should be possible to make a rough typology of households, a term which although sometimes vague, is better than family or farm. Household may usually be defined as a group of people that shares a common kitchen (or cooking place) and that recognizes one household head. The purpose of this is to establish the range and extent of inequality and variation on a particular problem. 6. Social  and  Economic â€Å"This category seeks further information on differentiation how is access to land defined and who controls/owns the land? How many are landless or near landless, how many rent land? 7. Political-Administrative â€Å"What are the formal and informal channels of authority? What are the links to the regional (and national) centers of power? What is the extent of-local participation in making decisions? What laws, regulations, and local informal, sanctions affect on the exits problems in the community. † On the other hand, it needs to look into some techniques adopted for fact finding. Which are as documentation, formal hearing, action research, demonstration projects, keeping abreast, need assessment, and programme identification on fact finding to find and know the root causes of the problems in the community. Fact finding techniques 1. Documentation Documentation is very important in order to keep the data of any particular problems of the community with exact facts of the problems, time, and year. Documentation can be done by note on paper, video record, and Microsoft words files so that even the next generation can see what were the main problems in the community and they will understand about the past events of the particular community. Doing documentation is for guide to implement action plan towards the particular problems for the development of the community. For example, documentation can be done by doing interview, home visit, looking into the historical background of the community, and by approaching to the head of the community to collect information about the community. And, the other example, if the community faces the problem of water crisis, here we need to look into â€Å"why, how, and when does it happen? † is important to know and how far it effect means its magnitude towards the community people, so, these are needed to list down to do documentation for programme implementation. 2. Formal hearing It is the important thing to know and ask how people in the community feel on particular problems, it means that it needs people concern on the particular problems which exists in the community for action plan and programme implementation. After doing documentation, it needs to ask people opinions, ideas, and solutions for problem solving process so that the people will feel that this or that is problems in the community, and they will accept particular problem as their problem in the community. Here, student social worker needs to apply the principles of people participation, start with what they know and have, and teach them by showing and learn by doing in order to get people concern and participation for problem solving process. For example, school dropout is happening in the community, but may be the community people may feel that this is not their problem, for that the student social worker needs to make them aware that this is problem in the community by showing them the disadvantages of school dropout and how do school dropout affect to the children future, and when the community people accept school dropout as their problem, the student social worker needs to make them to link with the available resources for reducing the rate of the school dropout and to stop school dropout in the community. For that, the student social worker can give awareness programme on the importance of education for children. 3. Action research The term action research means doing research with some types of action programmes for the betterment of the community. Action research is a research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a community of practice to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. Action research involves the process of actively participating in an organization change situation whilst conducting research. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. As designers and stakeholders, researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work practices. For example, for school dropout problem in the community, here action research talks about to seek the way or strategies to approach to solve the immediate problem. Therefore, student social worker needs to seek that way that may be it is good to approach to the head of the community as first step or it will be better to do awareness programme first, and in secondly, may be the student social worker will seek for the available resources to make them link with the resources which can handle their current needs or problem. 4. Demonstration projects The demonstration projects mean that to find out whether the certain programme will work for the particular issue or problem and how and how much effective the particular programme is in solving the problems. It needs to identify and analysis on the programme to know whether it will work or it needs to change for solving the problem in the community. It needs to demonstrate on the projects or programme which will be implemented to solve the occurring problems in the community whether it will be effective towards the problem or not, if it is not effective than it needs to change the progamme and its objectives, action plan, and goal to seek for the better programme to solve the problem. For example, in the case of school dropout, the student social worker decides to conduct awareness programme on the importance of education, but actually when the student social worker demonstrate on the programme, he realizes that it needs to do home visit and survey as the first step to find out the facts and after that he may conduct awareness programme. 5. Keeping abreast The term keeping abreast means that to keep on giving information about new development, new information regard to certain subjects. This word means that to keep on providing and giving new and up-to-date information regard with certain problem in order to have good footstep in solving the problem effectively. For example, in some cases and problems, the process of the problems are changing may be because problems are dynamic from one place to other in nature because of culture transmission, because of news etc so, that it needs to update the information to take good action for solving the problems. 6. Need assessment It is very important to seek and know the real needs of the community to have ffective programme for problem solving in the community as professional social worker. It means to implement programme in time or the in the time of need, correct time, and place, with specific objectives and programme. For example, the student social worker needs to see into the needs of the community people rather than his needs. 7. Programme identification For the last point, it is programme identification process. It me ans that it needs to indentify and analysis on the programme whether it works and full fill the needs of the people. In the process of programme identification, it focuses on to identify how much the programme will effect towards the problem, and what will be needed to solve the problems. For example, in the case of the school dropout, the student social worker needs to identify on the awareness programme that â€Å"does the awareness programme on importance of education work to reduce the rate of school dropout in the community†, if it still needs more action than, the student social worker needs to seek the way by corporation with the community people to get the better solution for that. Conclusion As student social worker, the technique of fact finding is very important in order to find the root cause of the problems in the particular community to take action plan with specific objectives and programme implementation for the betterment or progress of the community. Fact finding is an extremely important component of the communication process which presents its own special set of problems and opportunities to people working to increase the constructiveness of intractable problems conflicts in the community. Therefore, it is very important to collect the real facts of the particular problem in the community to take effective action and programme implementation for solving the problems. For fact finding group interview is very important also because a short-cut method of rapidly gathering data is to interview groups rather than individuals. This method presents problems of representativeness, since any group chosen is unlikely to represent a true cross-section of the local population, though attempts should be made to include individuals of different socio-economic status. The knowledge and experience of several individuals may serve as checks on information given by each others. And, questionnaires are a popular method of data collection. The advantages of using a questionnaire are well-known: data can be collected quickly on specific items; these data can be easily transferred into forms allowing quantified and computerized analyses; and data collection tasks can be delegated to less expensive field staff. Questionnaires also compel the adoption of some organized structure upon data collection, but will be most effective when used by someone who can support and test the questionnaire findings with personal observations and insights and knowledge. Using questionnaires is one means of recording data, but it is not the only means and it is not adequate to not cover all the information required.

Monday, July 22, 2019

A Votre Sante Teaching Note Essay Example for Free

A Votre Sante Teaching Note Essay Additionally, the case questions require both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the business issues faced by AVS. AVS has been used in a graduate-level managerial accounting class for MBAs, and would be most appropriate for an advanced undergraduate or a graduate-level accounting or MBA course. The detail in the case is rich enough to support a variety of analyses. Alternative uses could be to have the student construct a cost of goods manufactured statement or a traditional financial statement, both of which reinforce the differences between product and period costs. Additionally, alternative decision analysis questions could be developed using the variable and fixed cost structures described in the case. Case question number two is only one example of a potential decision analysis question. The contribution margin income statement (Teaching Note Exhibit 1) is fairly straightforward, with the following concepts or calculations causing the most difficulty: The inclusion of liquor taxes and sales commissions in variable costs: These are both period expenses, but are clearly based upon the number of bottles sold, and therefore are included in the variable costs. Where to include the wine master expense: Since the wine master is paid according to number of blends, not number of bottles, this expense is listed as a fixed cost. Arguably, it could be listed as a variable cost, given that the cost will be based on the number of wines produced. As part of the discussion we will examine the rationale behind listing wine master as a fixed or a variable expense. Barrel expense: The case states that the barrels produce the equivalent of 40 cases of wine. A case of wine is post-fermentation/bottling and therefore after the 10% loss has occurred. The barrels contain the wine at the start of the process. Therefore, there have to be enough barrels to hold all the wine at the beginning of the process, not at the end. This factor results in 63 (62.5) barrels being required for the harvest2. Teaching Note Exhibit 1: Contribution Margin Income Statement Part b asks, â€Å"What is the maximum amount that AVS would pay to buy an additional pound of Chardonnay grapes?† There are three parts to calculating this answer: the benefit from the additional Chardonnay wine to be sold, the relevant costs related to producing this wine and the opportunity cost of not producing as much Blanc de Blanc wine. Teaching Note: Exhibit 2 displays the calculations relevant to this decision. Chardonnay regular wine requires a 2 to 1 mixture of Chardonnay and generic white grapes. Therefore, the 18,000 pounds of Chardonnay grapes will be combined with 9,000 pounds of generic white grapes. The 27,000 pounds of grapes will result in an additional 9,000 bottles of new Chardonnay regular wine being produced. However, it will also result in a 3,000-bottle decrease in the amount of Blanc de Blanc wine produced, since some generic grapes will now be used for the Chardonnay-regular wine. Recall that only Chardonnay wine is processed in barrels.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Why are Risk Assessments Important?

Why are Risk Assessments Important? Demonstrate why risk assessment is an important conceptual  framework for health and social care practice A phrase I have heard often is ‘health and safety gone mad’ and this has been said by people in the care sector when referring to procedures and training they believe is unnecessary, just creating extra work, to perform extra checks and it has been expressed that some employees felt as if it was creating more procedures and forms to fill that if not done the employee could be blamed if something goes wrong and management could avoid responsibility. I believe that these feeling are caused by introducing training and implementing new tasks without an explanation to their importance and not providing the risk assessment to show the research and past incidents that have led to new procedures being enforced. On the 4th April 2015 I was working as a casual support worker in a S.E.N school and a teacher there told me that herself and the other teachers had to attend ladder training and were forbidden from using chairs or anything else to reach for objects on school premises, the school now had a ladder that they described to be safer and would lessen the risk of an accident. The teacher I spoke to said â€Å"its health and safety gone mad.† She thought it was wasted effort having to have to get the ladder and impractical that they were told that no staff should use chairs for that purpose. She did not know about the numerous risk assessments that had been completed involving falls in school settings from chairs and tables; the National Union of Teachers researched and discovered that ‘Between 2002 and 2010 there was one death and nearly two thousand injuries in the education sector as a result of falls from height’. The National Union of teachers examined regulations th at would support their results and the ‘Regulation 6(3) of the Work at Height Regulations states that employers must do all that is reasonably practicable to prevent anyone falling. They must avoid work at height being carried out wherever possible, and where it is unavoidable put in place measures (e.g. suitable work equipment and procedures) to minimise the risk of a fall, and the risk of injury should someone fall despite suitable measures being put in place’. So it is each employer’s obligation to provide training and equipment to ensure the safety of their employees when the probability of the risk happening becomes greater and new information is produced showing new procedures need to be implemented. Risk assessment is the valuation of the harm or disease that could be caused by an object or the environment and this harmful substance is labelled a hazard and the level of harm that hazard can cause will affect how the hazard is controlled. The hazard could present a low or high risk to individuals or the environment; the extent of harm the hazard could cause and the probability of that harm happening is how the risk is measured. The factors to consider when looking at a hazard are how it could cause harm, where does the hazard reside or kept, conditions surrounding the hazard, the frequency of exposure and how much exposure is safe (, 2014). A qualitative risk assessment ‘produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study (G, Guest, 2005)’. A qualitative risk assessment has been defined as a ‘written photograph’ (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, Allen, 1993) as cited in Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method (2005), it observes an individual’s contradictory behaviours, beliefs, opinions, emotions, and relationships of individuals. Qualitative methods are also effective in identifying intangible factors, such as social norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, and religion, whose role in the research issue may not be readily apparent. (G, Guest, 2005). The techniques of a qualitative risk assessment is to observe the subjective influences of the individual, to interview the person or other individuals that are necessary to the assessment to gain background information, contributing factors that has lead up to current conditions and the r isk assessment, to strategies possible solutions and to try and have answers to any queries. Focus groups bring together a group of people to discuss and express their feelings on one topic. The focus group can assist in researching a sensitive subject, to gather preliminary data, aid in the development of surveys and interview guide, to clarify research findings from another method and to gain a large amount of information on the topic in a short time, access to topics that might be otherwise unobservable, can insure that data directly targets researchers topic and Provide access to comparisons that focus group participants make between their experiences (Cohen D, 2006). Qualitative risk assessments assist with quantitative risk assessments as the conclusion of the qualitative risk assessment can provide the information needed to create a numeric value for the probability of the hazard causing harm or disease to individuals or the environment. A quantitative risk assessment identifies the level of risk by using an equation that would show if the risk has a high or low chance of harm or disease by evaluating the hazard, the environment and individuals that could be exposed. The equation used is R=C x E x P means: R is the total score of the risk for example; 20 or less=negligible, 21-69=low, 70-199=medium, 200-399=high and 400or more=very high. C means consequence, severity or disease for example; fatality=100, very serious=75, serious=50, important=10 and minor=5. E is for how often an individual is exposed to the hazard for example; continuous=10, frequent=6, occasional=3, unusual=2, rare=1 and very rare=0.5. P=probability of the hazard causing harm or disease, how often a person could come into contact with the hazard and how capable is the person to deal with the hazard for example; would be expected=10, quite possible=6, unusual but possible=3, only remotely possible=1, conceivable but unlikely=0.5, practically impossible=0.2 and virtually impossible (Tabithasonia, 2014). Risk assessments are based on factual research but there are occasions when personal fears, media and inconclusive debates could lead people to believe that a hazard could cause more harm than studies show or create fears of unrealistic hazards. A media coverage of a study reported serious risks on certain medicines causing unnecessary fear amongst consumers as many of the facts they stated were proven exaggerated or false. The study was based in the US and it was on whether the use of medicines that have anticholinergic effects links to the increased risk of Alzheimer’s at the University of Washington and Group Health Research Institute was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal. The study had some shortcomings and was US based but the British media published the findings in the newspapers and particular newspapers exaggerated statistics, several printed the name of the wrong drug, wrong information given about the focus group and failed to make people aware that the instant stopping of these medications could have adverse effects. The drugs that the study focused on was antihistamines such as Benadryl but the U.K form of Benadryl does not contain diphenhydramine which has a anticholinergic effect and diphenh ydramine is not a chemical that is used in U.K in medicines as it is in the US so the risk of Benadryl in the U.K increasing the risk of Alzheimer’s would be risk assessed as very low as there is no hazard to cause the risk. The level of risk can be based on a person’s perception of the risk using their own knowledge of hazard gathered from word and mouth, personal dread of the hazard occurring and popular beliefs of the hazard and precautionary procedures are put in place using these values. In an elderly residential home there was a fear of Legionnaires’ disease but there was no evidence to support this fear as when tested there was no trace of legionella bacteria in the water system and the water system’s thermometer would ensure the water temperature stays at the levels where the Legionella bacteria is unable to spread and the caretaker checked the water system often ensuring it was up to health and safety standards but a senior member of staff believed that stagnant water was the cause of the spread Legionella bacteria and she thought the home did not use enough water daily to prevent this. An NHS article explains that the environment needed for Legionella bacteria is water temp erature of 20-45C (68-113F) and impurities in the water that the bacteria can use for food – such as rust, algae and lime scale, the world health organisation also has the same information on the spread of legionella bacteria also that if there is stagnant water to test the quality of the water after three days and there still may be no detection of legionella bacteria but these facts were not taken into account when the senior member of staff did her risk assessment and requested that the caretaker would run the taps and showers for a few hours daily to empty the water tanks but if there was a risk of legionnaires disease running water is a risk as it affects people by breathing it in the small droplets of water and the constant refilling of the water tank can dilute the disinfectant chemicals in the tank that protects the water against bacteria proving that a risk assessment that is based on a personal opinion can be inaccurate and would need further investigation into the facts. Epidemiology is the study of patterns of disease and mortality rates showing the diversities in areas, this helps target areas in the need of preventative healthcare and shows which areas or ages are more vulnerable to disease and what areas are people living the longest. The epidemiology study for Legionnaires disease shows that it ‘is rare in the UK. In 2013, 284 people were reported to have the infection in England and Wales. Of these cases, 88 people (31%) were exposed to the infection while travelling abroad – mainly to Mediterranean countries, but also tropical countries such as India. However, given the millions of trips made abroad each year, 88 cases is a very small number. Cases of Legionnaires disease arising in England and Wales usually peak between July and September. (NHS, 2015)’ In healthcare settings there are mandatory risk prevention measures in legislation on risk management and the health and safety of individuals and the environment that have been sanctioned by governing bodies and enforced by inspectors such as Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales. The Health and Social Care (Safety and Quality) Act 2015 is a legislation that’s goal is to improve the safety and quality of those in care and explains what is expected of regulators of health and social care professions. Riddor or reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations 2013 is the regulation that explains to employers their duties on assessing risks and how to report incidents and these reports are important to assess the needed safety precautions to prevent incidents in the future. COSHH or Control of Substances Hazardous to Health is the law that enforces employers to ensure all hazardous substances are stored safely in appropriate storage rooms, necessary me asures to be taken and risk assessments are completed to prevent any incidents. The case study I am looking at is about Susan a 45 year old school teacher who three years ago lost her husband in a car accident when she had been driving and blames herself even though it was not her fault and since the accident she has turned to alcohol. Susan has been finding her job more stressful and is drinking more for as a coping mechanism but this had to stop as she arrived for work one day under the obvious influence of drink. She was sent home and warned if it happened again a formal disciplinary action would be taken. Her husband Rik was self-employed and had not made provision for a pension or insurance payment in the event of his death and Susan has not adapted her lifestyle following Rik’s death and she spends more than she earns. Her only income is her salary and child benefit; Susan did have some savings but these have now been spent. She has taken out a bank loan and has also just started taking out short term ‘pay day’ loans. The family live in their own home but it is subject to a mortgage. Susan is struggling to make payments and the last two have been paid late. Susan’s daughter Lydia aged 16 has just started her A levels and is at risk of being excluded for lack of effort. She has also started a relationship with Lee, aged 27, who is unemployed and has 2 children from separate previous relationships. Susan’s son Tom aged 14 has started to rebel against his mother. He defies her and stays out after dark and mixes with the ‘wrong people’. He was returned to the house recently by the police having been found drinking in the local park. Causes of Aggressive Behaviour: Anthropology Theories Causes of Aggressive Behaviour: Anthropology Theories In what sense are aggressive behaviors, i.e. conflict, competition, and dominance, universal characteristics of humans? What is the evidence that in some cultures aggressive behaviors are rarely observed and strongly sanctioned? How is such an outcome achieved? Humans are innately social animals, whose existence depends on a continued complex relationship with other human beings. Expressed aggression will inevitably lead to an individual or group as the dominator, and an individual or group as the dominated. Since human origin, individuals and groups have had continuous conflicts in search for the best economic resources, the most fertile land, and the most sustainable reproductive social group. For this reason, human history is full of aggressive conflicts and sanctioned aggressive behaviors. This essay is a brief composition summarizing the outcomes of aggressive human behaviors, specifically focusing on whether dominance, competition, conflict, and war are caused by nature, nurture, or both. This essay also presents case studies of rare amicable, nonviolent societies and their achievements of peace and human security. It is widely agreed among evolutionary anthropologists and sociobiologists that aggression is a biologically universal human characteristic (Dennen Falger 1990; Schmookler 1995; Wrangham Peterson 1996); however, many contemporary cultural anthropologists advocate that aggression is a cultural construct (Kropotkin 1914). Indeed, the historical debate between nature and nurture is vigorous, as the categories of human intrinsical, interactional, and environmental traits are blurred. Hobbes (ed. Tuck 1991) argued that war is a functional part of human nature that maintains a balance of power and solidarity. Rousseau (Jonathan 2005) defended the position that war is independent from human nature, and is therefore a dysfunctional social construct invented by states intended to protect societies. In contrast, Malthus (Pullen 1989) believed war to be a functional mechanism imparted by God to humans to reduce populations at necessary intervals through an innate expression of aggression and a need for in-group cohesion to maintain a sustainable equilibrium. The nature-nurture debate continues still, from early philosophers to contemporary scholars with no definitive answer. The debate however has recently grown more complex with a greater comprehension of biological predispositions that effect human behavior. The most compelling explanation is that many biological predispositions, like aggression and competition, can be distinguished from, but influenced by, the cultural environment (Renfrew 1997). Every living organism, Ridley (2003, p. 236) argues, is an instrument for ‘genes to grow, feed, thrive, replicate, and die, but most importantly its primary survival function is reproduction. Reproduction undoubtedly catalyzes a competitive force to create descendants. This essay reputes the position that biological factors influence the cultural, or as Ridley (2003) describes it ‘nature via nurture. More specifically, reproduction and aggression biologically entail phenotypic outcomes. All humans feel the need to eliminate competitors, or the offspring of competitors to protect reproductive capital such as territory and mates (Low 2000, p. 214). This can be achieved through aggressive non-violent dominance or aggressive violent conflicts. Anderson and Bushman (2002, p.28) defines human aggression as ‘any behavior directed toward another individual that is carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm. This, however, does not mean that the individual has carried out the harmful conduct. It can be inferred then, that aggression is a means to create an inverse relation to achieve a goal through someone without the use of harm or violence. The definition of violence, such as war, conflict, competition, and dominance is arbitrary. For example, violence in one culture can be very different to another culture, or even to individuals of the same culture. Anderson Bushman (2002, p.29) defines violence as ‘aggression that has extreme harm as its goal (e.g., death). When comparing the two definitions, it is clear that violence is aggressive expression but, conversely, aggression does not always lead to violence. These definitions lead to the conclusion that aggression is biological and universal among humans and furthermore, violence is nature via nurture. In fact, human expression of violence is minimal compared to aggression. Aggression can be observed in almost every human interaction in the form of non-violent dominance and competition for social capital (Dennen Falger 1990). Culture arbitrates in inverse relations with norms, mores, folkways, and taboos to prevent aggression turning into rampant violence. With the mediation of culture, aggression via violence serves multiple functions and dysfunctions within human societies (Dennen Falger 1990). Established in-out groups create and maintain group identity and boundary lines between societies. This stratification then creates reciprocal hostility between groups and creates the need for social institutions. These institutions often act as social filters preventing impulsive social conflict between in-out groups (Dennen Falger 1990). These filters also act as a mobilization mechanism, unifying the energies of group members, thus increasing group cohesion or reaffirming state sovereignty (Dennen Falger 1990). Without group unification, powerful charismatic people cannot rally a society toward a collective interest. Social order is achieved through rules and commands issued by these powerful people to maintain a normative system of society and influence the weaker people to represent their will (Dennen Falger 1990). The example of aggression (nature) via dominance (nurture) complies with the laws of mutual aid and mutual struggle (Wrangham Peterson 1996; Kropotkin 1914 ). Through these two laws humans directly benefit from achieved power, status, and resources through competition; however, as a result, 60 percent of all human societies engage in warfare at least yearly (Low 2000, p. 223). War would be inevitable if the genetic basis alone dictated human action. The above arguments have uncovered that the universal character of human conflict, competition, and dominance is contingent on biological aggressive behaviors. Ethnographic records and historical accounts tell a clear story of hominid catalyzed aggression (Carmen 1997). From primate pack raiding, to Homo habilis tribal skirmishes, to Homo erectus group battles, to Neandertal societal armed conflicts, to Homo sapien civilization wars (Schmookler 1995 p. 74-87; Otterbein 2004), humans have perpetually constructed cultural systems to solve the recurrent problem of violent aggression via mutual aid and mutual struggle. Through history, humans have been actively altering their environments through problem solving to best suit intellectual development, which has caused an inevitable in-group/out-group competition (Schmookler 1995). The more humans mutually support each other, the more intellectual development occurs; conversely, the more human intellect increases, the larger civilizations become, and more blood is shed (Schmookler 1995). That is, greater levels of population pressure are associated with a greater likelihood of warfare. Furthermore, ‘warfare is more likely in advanced horticultural and agrarian societies than it is in hunting–and–gathering and simple horticultural societies, and that it is also more likely in hunting–and–gathering and agrarian societies that have above–average population densities (Nolan 2003). Thus, the denser human population becomes, the laws of mutual aid and mutual struggle become more imposed. This is evidence that cultur e can intensify or suppress expressions of aggression. For the most part, however, culture has been unsuccessful at eliminating violence. Since mutual aid and mutual struggle has failed to resolve the problem of universal conflict, surely something must provide a solution. Kropotkin (1914, p. 74) argues that, ‘better conditions are created by the elimination of competition by means of mutual aid, thus establishing a cultural ecology of pacificism. This argument fails because, as presented above, innate aggression induces competition for optimal human survival. To completely eliminate competition, aggression must first be entirely suppressed. Complex human culture is unable to hinder aggression to the degree of elimination, but Kropotkin inadvertently made a good point. Once competition is reduced, social disparities and meritocracy will also decrease, thus preventing the less dominant group from obtaining the subordinate position (Schmookler 1995). The latter part of this essay will draw upon case studies to argue that competition reduction has been the primary objective for many tribal societies and welfare stat es. Kropotkin (1914) uses numerous examples to argue that societies with intra-group cohesion rarely encounter intra or inter-group conflict. Among them is a Papuan tribe located in Geelwink Bay, studied by G.L. Blink (1888). Kropotkin (1914, p. 94) interprets Blinks account as, ‘never having any quarrels worth speaking of and ‘never had he any conflict to complain of which is unsupported because Blink, in his field notes writes, ‘war prisoners are sometimes eaten. Kropotkin does not completely overlook this statement of warfare, but this case study fails to prove his point that inter-group peace is achievable. Kropotkin, therefore, makes a detrimental mistake in his argument for exemplifying paramount sociability and inter-tribal peace. It seems Kropotkin was attempting to persuade readers through an anarchist agenda by centering on the Papuan peaceful in-group relations and describing the Papuan tribe as having a primitive communist system (Kropotkin 1914, p. 93-95). By using examples of Inuit tribes, Kropotkin once again glorifies in-group mutual aid, but abandons emphasis on inter-group conflict. In summarizing Veniaminoff, Kropotkin (1914, p. 100) writes, ‘one murder only had been committed since the last century in a population of 60,000 people, irrespective of mass infanticide to maintain a sustainable population. In truth, Inuit tribes rely heavily on cooperation and reciprocity for intra-group survival; however, they are not exempt from inter-group hostility as Kropotkin omits (1914, p. 95-104; Gat 1999, p. 26). Anthropologist Reynolds (1985, p. 24) asserts that, ‘Eskimos had limited their aggressiveness in past fights with other Eskimos, but had been more brutal in fights with other North American Indian peoples. Although restrained and ritualized, Inuit did wage combat against each other and engaged in inter-ethnic conflict (Gat 1999, p. 26). Even Veniaminoff, whom Kropotkin (1914, p. 99) quotes, writes that for Aleoutes â₠¬Ëœit is considered shameful to†¦ask pardon from an enemy; to die without ever having killed an enemy. Once again, Kropotkin relates the primitive society with his anarchical communist agenda to prove in-group solidarity and peace is achievable, but avoids out-group enmity. Specifically, Kropotkin takes a Rousseauean social Darwinist stance on aggression and conflict by arguing that humans are innately peaceable and cooperative. Nevertheless, Kropotkin shares a commonality with Rousseau, Malthus, and Hobbes; each has constructed two functional and universal explanations for aggression and conflict (Dawson 1996, p. 7). Firstly, interspecific aggression occurs when one group attempts to exclude another group through competitiveness and dominance. This can be achieved with or without violence and is distinguished from predation, when an individual or group dominates the other for the economic gain of a food source. Secondly, group cohesion results in a synergistic in-group relationship, consequently producing an ethnocentric view of superiority toward other groups (Pope 2000, p. 161; Dawson 1996, p. 7). Although Kropotkin downplayed group ethnocentrism and rallying, he realized it is inevitable, as explained above. Indeed, the laws of mutual aid and mutual struggle universally obligate humans. As explained above, innate competition and group solidarity has, throughout the history of man, led to conflicts. With the rise of large-scale societies, these conflicts evolved into primitive warfare. During the early Paleolithic, H. s. sapiens began to spread rapidly across the earths surface (Dawson 1996, p. 26). Fissionings and fusions occurred often, and competition intensified because of seasonal scarce resources. According to Dawson (1996, p. 26) ‘all theories of primitive warfare have recognized that whether or not it [war] is innate it has to be triggered by competition. Warfare is certainly not innate, but it may account for the wide dispersal of early Paleolithic humanity. Conversely, it would have limited the possibilities for offensive/defensive competition because early humans most likely fought for land and resources and the winner would assume ‘ownership, while the other group found new economic capital (Dawson 1996, p. 26). This method would prove effecti ve until groups could no longer diffuse due to a limit of land and resources. At the beginning of the Neolithic culture, large groups could no longer easily avoid neighboring groups by seeking new land, therefore resource limitations compelled people to live in larger, more cohesive societies (Dawson 1996, p. 26-27). Dense populations compelled groups to become territorial, with semi-permanent settlements. Human societies, consequently, were forced to create caches of food to survive. In order to protect these caches, defensible resources became a defensive strategy against raiding groups, especially for agricultural societies (Dawson 1996, p. 26-27). Defensive logistics were designed to deter war but, according to the archeological evidence, war was more often and more brutal (Dawson 1996, p. 26-27). As a result of militarism, the individual became an expendable resource for the good of the group. The democratization of warfare among states is the current solution to the consistent and universal competitive strive for dominance. The democratic model originated during the French Revolution, when states were not yet nation-states and nationalism had not yet developed as a significant political force (Baylis, Smith, Owens 2008, p. 546). For the first time, humanity mustered an enormous and unprecedented amount of human energy into one single national service and mutual protection (Schmookler 1995, p. 99-100, 287-288; Baylis et al. 2008, p. 546). When France democratically handed over this vast army to Napoleon, neighboring nations were compelled to enhance and enlarge their military to deter domination. However, Napoleon was able to dominate Europe because of the newly devised national political system, enabling him to conjure unequalled armies (Schmookler 1995, p. 99-100, 287-288; Baylis, et al. 2008, p. 546). Once again, the laws of mutual aid and mutual struggle intertwine. In conclusion, Hobbes, Malthus, Rousseau, and Kropotkin all had a static view of competition. Competition inevitably leads to war and peace. The laws of mutual aid and mutual struggle are innate, universal, and are not mutually exclusive. They secure orderliness and allow humans to act freely to preserve their genes, however, the knowledge and values shared by a society influence and, to some degree, determine the thoughts and actions of an individual to behave synergistically and symbiotically (Schmookler 1995, p. 13). Through time, humanity has used solidarity, anarchy, fissioning, defense, militarism, social institutions, and democracy to sanction or repel conflict and violence with no prevail. In each case study presented, intra-group solidarity brought on inter-group competition and conversely, inter-group conflict caused intra-group solidarity. Because humans are social creatures and are dependent on each other for culture, conflicts are inevitable. The laws of mutual struggle and mutual aid operate within the law of natural selection – gene survival of the fittest individual or group. In/out groups will always be present; however, conflict and war are not innately biological. They are an outward expression of acculturation. That is, human biological aggression is stimulated by cultural norms, mores, folkways, and taboos. A groups cultural sanctions determine the social consequence for overt aggression. Bibliography Baylis, J., Smith S., Owens P., The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, London. 546 Baron, RA Richardson, DR 1994, Human aggression, 2nd ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1-38. Blink, G.L. 1888, Bulletin de la societe d anthropologie, vol.11, p. 386, cited in Kropotkin, Petr 1914, Mutual aid: A factor of evolution, Porter Sargent Publishers Inc, Boston. p. 93. Carmen, John 1997, Material harm: Archaeological studies of war and violence, Cruithne Press, UK. Coy, Patrick Woehrle, Lynne 2000, Social conflicts and collective identities, Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Maryland. Dawson, Doyne 1996, The origins of war: Biological and anthropological theories, History and Theory, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 1-28, viewed 25 Aug 2009, . Dennen, J. Falger V. (ed) 1990, Sociobiology and conflict: Evolutionary perspectives on competition, cooperation, violence and warfare, Chapman and Hall, London. Gat, A 1999, Social organization, group conflict and the demise of the Neanderthals, The Mankind Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 437-454. Kropotkin, Petr 1914, Mutual aid: A factor of evolution, Porter Sargent Publishers Inc, Boston. Low, Bobbi 2000, Why sex matters: A Darwinian look at human behavior, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Marks, Jonathan 2005, Perfection and disharmony in the thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. Nolan, Patrick 2003, ‘Toward an Ecological–Evolutionary Theory of the Incidence of Warfare in Preindustrial Societies, Sociological Theory, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 18 – 30. Otterbein, Keith 2004, How war began, Texas AM University Press, U.S.A. Pope, Geoffrey 2000, The biological bases of human behavior, Allyn and Bacon, Boston. Pullen, John (ed.) 1989, T.R. Malthus: Principles of political economy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. Renfrew, John 1997, Aggression and its causes: A biopsychosocial approach, Oxford University Press, New York. Reynolds, Vernon 1985, ‘Sociobiology meeting, Anthropology Today, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 24-25, viewed on 01 September 2009, . Ridley, Matt 2003, Nature via nurture, Fourth Estate, London. Schmookler, Andrew B. 1995, The parable of the tribes: The problem of power in social evolution, second edition, State University of New York, New York. Tuck, Richard (ed.) 1991, Hobbes: Leviathan, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. Wrangham, R Peterson, D 1996, Demonic males: apes and the origins of human violence, Bloomsbury, London.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Holocaust Rememberance Day :: Free Essays

Then they came for me - and there was no one left to speak for me.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  We’ve been taught that it is important to know history so that we can understand and learn from past mistakes and avoid repeating them in the future. On May 2nd, millions of people worldwide will remember the victims of the Holocaust as we observe the Holocaust Remembrance Day.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Holocaust is the term that refers to the tragedy of the World War II, specifically the ethnic cleansing carried out by the Nazis. Counting around 11 million deaths, it is undoubtedly one of the most horrendous crimes committed against humanity. Holocaust encompasses the time period from 1938 to 1945; its victims range from Jews to physically disabled. Singled out as the primary target, the Jewish people suffered around 6 million deaths during the Holocaust, that being nearly 65% of European Jewry. However, they were not the only ones.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Germans sought to really â€Å"cleanse† the human race. They targeted all the people who were somehow different from their â€Å"norms†. 5 million people other than Jews were killed during the Holocaust; these included homosexuals, gypsies, disabled, Jehova’s witnesses and Polish people, the list goes on and on. Asides from all the deaths, Nazis are famous for notorious experiments that they performed on â€Å"lower† races in and outside of their concentration camps. They tore apart families, often making parents watch their children being escorted to the gas chambers. 11 million people fled during the Holocaust, imagine how many lost their families.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On May 2nd you will see black tablecloths and burning candles on them. You can also see some movies and statistics. When you do see this, stop for just a second and think about those 11 million. If anything good can ever come out of the Holocaust, let it be the lesson for future generations. This lesson can be summarized in words of Martin Niemoller, an anti-Nazi German

Critical Race Theory and the Rodney King Case Essays -- Recism

Critical Race Theory and the Rodney King Case In reviewing the article, Canadian Critical Race Theory, I found that the author, Carol Aylvard, raises some very interesting as well as disturbing questions on the nature of racism within the realm of police enforcement. In looking through the lens of the Rodney King case, we are provided with a very specific example of how the issue of race was dealt with, or not dealt with within the LAPD and judicial system. To gain a clearer understanding of how race was a major issue in this case but at the same time not confronted on the front lines, Alyvard highlights several aspects of the case. In the 1991 state trial of the four police officers accused of beating Rodney King, the prosecution did not even attempt to introduce evidence of "racial animus" on part of the officers. Even though there was video-audio evidence as well as eyewitness testimony to the contrary, they still did not challenge the defense's assertion that no racial epithets had been used by the police officers. As well, the prosecution neglected to appeal the decision of the State Court to move the trial from a racially diverse area to the predominantly white area of Simi Valley, where it was inevitable that the officers would be judged by an all-white jury. Furthermore, they also did not challenge the defense's portrayal of King's injuries as trivial. While it is needless to say that the list goes on and on, it came as no great surprise that the jury acquitted the four LAPD officers. It was also not surprising that riots followed this acquittal. One month after the beating and one year after the acquittal, two independent commissions, The McCone Commission and The California State Assembly Commission were appoint... ... is possible to implement alternative legal strategies that have their roots in recognition instead of avoidance? In looking at additional information displayed on the Internet, there seems to be an even wider range of issues being developed around the Rodney King Case. How do people of different social classes, gender or race fair in the law enforcement system? A few sites as well as the article alluded the O.J. Simpson case. Did this case confirm the importance of race consciousness and show a move toward a better understanding of the role that race plays in law? At any rate, Aylvard argues that the Rodney King case, " †¦exposed the significance of race in constitutional and criminal law and the dangers of avoiding it to maintain the "myth" of color blindness." (p. 66). References Carol, A. Aylvard. Canadian Critical Race Theory. Halifax: Fernwood, 1999.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Ieoh Ming Pei Essay -- People Pei Biography Papers

Ieoh Ming Pei Ieoh Ming Pei is a brilliant, Chinese-American architect. He combines learned skill with his gift of knowing what works both functionally and aesthetically. Early Life He was born in Canton, China, on April 26, 1917. Art and commerce were both ingrained in Pei's upbringing. His family had lived for more than 600 years in Suzhou (formerly Soochow), a city in the Yangtze basin northwest of Shanghai. The history of Suzhou goes back some 2,500 years,, but it became prominent during the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) with the completion of the Grand Canal, which linked several major trading cities. Suzhou was an important city in the rice and silk trades. It was also known for its many craftsmen, scholars, and artists. People considered the city so wonderful that there was a saying about it and its neighboring city: "In heaven there is paradise; on earth, Suzhou." Around the time of his birth, fighting among local warlords made life dangerous in Canton. The political turbulence that Pei witnessed seems parallel to Einstein’s experience with political turbulence in Germany, and Ghandi’s experience with India under British rule and the loss of Hindu identity that came with the ruling of a different culture. In 1918, the bank told Tsuyee (I. M.’s father) to move with his family to the safety of Hong Kong, which was then governed by Great Britain. Sometimes on that long journey Ieoh Ming’s nurse, or "amah," carried him on her back. The Pei family lived in Hong Kong for nine years. During that time, three more children were born: I.M.'s sister, Wei, and his two brothers, Kwun and Chung. In 1927, I.M.'s father was made manager of the bank's main office in Shanghai, and the family returned to C... ... Science Center, at Boston, Massachusetts References: Dell, Pamela. I.M. Pei Designer of Dreams. Chicago: Childrens Press Inc, 1993. "I. M. Pei" Grolier’s Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1996. Wiseman, Carter. I. M. Pei: A Profile in American Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc, 1990.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Microprocessor and Interfacing

UNIT II- Peripherals and Interfacing PIO 8255 The parallel input-output port chip 8255 is also called as programmable peripheral input-output port. The Intel’s 8255 is designed for use with Intel’s 8-bit, 16-bit and higher capability microprocessors. It has 24 input/output lines which may be individually programmed in two groups of twelve lines each, or three groups of eight lines. The two groups of I/O pins are named as Group A and Group B. Each of these two groups contains a subgroup of eight I/O lines called as 8-bit port and another subgroup of four lines or a 4-bit port.Thus Group A contains an 8-bit port A along with a 4-bit port. C upper. PIO 8255 †¢ The port A lines are identified by symbols PA0-PA7 while the port C lines are identified as PC4-PC7. Similarly, GroupB contains an 8-bit port B, containing lines PB0-PB7 and 4-bit port C with lower bits PC0- PC3. The port C upper and port C lower can be used in combination as an 8-bitport C. †¢ Both the por t C are assigned the same address. Thus one may have either three 8-bit I/O ports or two 8-bit and two 4-bit ports from 8255. All of these ports can function independently either as input or as output ports.This can be achieved by programming the bits of an internal register of 8255 called as control word register ( CWR ). PIO 8255 †¢ The internal block diagram and the pin configuration of 8255 are shown in fig. †¢ The 8-bit data bus buffer is controlled by the read/write control logic. The read/write control logic manages all of the internal and external transfers of both data and control words. †¢ RD, WR, A1, A0 and RESET are the inputs provided by the microprocessor to the READ/ WRITE control logic of 8255. The 8-bit, 3-state bidirectional buffer is used to interface the 8255 internal data bus with the external system data bus.PIO 8255 †¢ This buffer receives or transmits data upon the execution of input or output instructions by the microprocessor. The contro l words or status information is also transferred through the buffer. †¢ The signal description of 8255 are briefly presented as follows : †¢ PA7-PA0: These are eight port A lines that acts as either latched output or buffered input lines depending upon the control word loaded into the control word register. †¢ PC7-PC4 : Upper nibble of port C lines. They may act as either output latches or input buffers lines. PIO 8255 This port also can be used for generation of handshake lines in mode 1 or mode 2. †¢ PC3-PC0 : These are the lower port C lines, other details are the same as PC7-PC4 lines. †¢ PB0-PB7 : These are the eight port B lines which are used as latched output lines or buffered input lines in the same way as port A. †¢ RD : This is the input line driven by the microprocessor and should be low to indicate read operation to 8255. †¢ WR : This is an input line driven by the microprocessor. A low on this line indicates write operation. PIO 8255 †¢ CS : This is a chip select line.If this line goes low, it enables the 8255 to respond to RD and WR signals, otherwise RD and WR signal are neglected. †¢ A1-A0 : These are the address input lines and are driven by the microprocessor. These lines A1-A0 with RD, WR and CS from the following operations for 8255. These address lines are used for addressing any one of the four registers, i. e. three ports and a control word register as given in table below. †¢ In case of 8086 systems, if the 8255 is to be interfaced with lower order data bus, the A0 and A1 pins of 8255 are connected with A1 and A2 respectively.RD 0 0 0 0 RD 1 1 1 1 RD X 1 WR 1 1 1 1 WR 0 0 0 0 WR X 1 CS 0 0 0 0 CS 0 0 0 0 CS 1 0 A1 0 0 1 1 A1 0 0 1 1 A1 X X A0 0 1 0 1 A0 0 1 0 1 A0 X X Input (Read) cycle Port A to Data bus Port B to Data bus Port C to Data bus CWR to Data bus Output (Write) cycle Data bus to Port A Data bus to Port B Data bus to Port C Data bus to CWR Function Data bus tristated Data bu s tristated Control Word Register PIO 8255. †¢ D0-D7 : These are the data bus lines those carry data or control word to/from the microprocessor. †¢ RESET : A logic high on this line clears the control word register of 8255.All ports are set as input ports by default after reset. Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture) ( cont.. ) †¢ 1. 2. 3. 4. †¢ It has a 40 pins of 4 groups. Data bus buffer Read Write control logic Group A and Group B controls Port A, B and C Data bus buffer: This is a tristate bidirectional buffer used to interface the 8255 to system databus. Data is transmitted or received by the buffer on execution of input or output instruction by the CPU. Control word and status information are also transferred through this unit. †¢ Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture) ( cont.. )Read/Write control logic: This unit accepts control signals ( RD, WR ) and also inputs from address bus and issues commands to individual group of control blocks ( Group A, Group B). †¢ It has the following pins. a) CS – Chipselect : A low on this PIN enables the communication between CPU and 8255. b) RD (Read) – A low on this pin enables the CPU to read the data in the ports or the status word through data bus buffer. †¢ Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture) ( cont.. ) WR ( Write ) : A low on this pin, the CPU can write data on to the ports or on to the control register through the data bus buffer. ) RESET: A high on this pin clears the control register and all ports are set to the input mode e) A0 and A1 ( Address pins ): These pins in conjunction with RD and WR pins control the selection of one of the 3 ports. †¢ Group A and Group B controls : These block receive control from the CPU and issues commands to their respective ports. c) Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture) ( cont.. ) †¢ Group A – PA and PCU ( PC7 -PC4) †¢ Group B – PCL ( PC3 – PC0) †¢ Control word register can only be written int o no read operation of the CW register is allowed. a) Port A: This has an 8 bit latched/buffered O/P and 8 bit input latch. It can be programmed in 3 modes – mode 0, mode 1, mode 2. b) Port B: This has an 8 bit latched / buffered O/P and 8 bit input latch. It can be programmed in mode 0, mode1. Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture). c) Port C : This has an 8 bit latched input buffer and 8 bit out put latched/buffer. This port can be divided into two 4 bit ports and can be used as control signals for port A and port B. it can be programmed in mode 0. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ These are two basic modes of operation of 8255.I/O mode and Bit Set-Reset mode (BSR). †¢ In I/O mode, the 8255 ports work as programmable I/O ports, while in BSR mode only port C (PC0-PC7) can be used to set or reset its individual port bits. †¢ Under the I/O mode of operation, further there are three modes of operation of 8255, so as to support different types of applications, mode 0, mode 1 and mode 2. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ BSR Mode: In this mode any of the 8-bits of port C can be set or reset depending on D0 of the control word. The bit to be set or reset is selected by bit select flags D3, D2 and D 1 of the CWR as given in table. I/O Modes : a) Mode 0 ( Basic I/O mode ): This mode is also called as basic input/output mode. This mode provides simple input and output capabilities using each of the three ports. Data can be simply read from and written to the input and output ports respectively, after appropriate initialisation. D3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 D2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Selected bits of port C D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 BSR Mode : CWR Format PA 8 2 5 5 PCU PCL PA6 – PA7 PC4 – PC7 PC0-PC3 PB PB0 – PB7 8 2 5 5 PA PCU PCL PB PA PC PB0 – PB7 All Output Port A and Port C acting as O/P. Port B acting as I/PMode 0 Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ 1. The salient features of this mode are a s listed below: Two 8-bit ports ( port A and port B )and two 4-bit ports (port C upper and lower ) are available. The two 4-bit ports can be combinedly used as a third 8-bit port. Any port can be used as an input or output port. Output ports are latched. Input ports are not latched. A maximum of four ports are available so that overall 16 I/O configuration are possible. All these modes can be selected by programming a register internal to 8255 known as CWR. 2. 3. 4. †¢ Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. †¢ The control word register has two formats. The first format is valid for I/O modes of operation, i. e. modes 0, mode 1 and mode 2 while the second format is valid for bit set/reset (BSR) mode of operation. These formats are shown in following fig. D7 1 D6 X D5 X D4 X D3 D2 D1 D0 0- Reset 0-for BSR mode Bit select flags D3, D2, D1 are from 000 to 111 for bits PC0 TO PC71- Set I/O Mode Control Word Register Format and BSR Mode Control Word Register Format PA3 PA2 PA1 PA0 R D CS GND A1 A0 PC7 PC6 PC5 PC4 PC0 PC1 PC2 PC3 PB0 PB1 PB2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 WR Reset D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Vcc PB7 PB6 PB5 PB4 PB3 8255A 8255A Pin Configuration = D0-D7 CS RESET 8255A A0 A1 RD PA0-PA7 PC4-PC7 PC0-PC3 PB0-PB7 Vcc WR GND Signals of 8255 3 Group A control 1 D0-D7 Data bus Buffer 8 bit int data bus 4 Group A Port A(8) PA0-PA7 Group A Port C upper(4) Group B Port C Lower(4) PC7-PC4 PC0-PC3 2 RD WR A0 A1 RESET CS Block Diagram of 8255 READ/ WRITE Control Logic Group B control PB7-PB0 Group B Port B(8) D7 D6 D5 Mode for Port A D4 PA D3 PC U D2 Mode for PB D1 PB D0 PC LMode Set flag 1- active 0- BSR mode Group – A 1 Input PC u 0 Output 1 Input PA 0 Output 00 – mode 0 Mode 01 – mode 1 Select of PA 10 – mode 2 Group – B PCL PB Mode Select 1 Input 0 Output 1 Input 0 Output 0 mode- 0 1 mode- 1 Control Word Format of 8255 Modes of Oper ation of 8255 (cont.. ) b) Mode 1: ( Strobed input/output mode ) In this mode the handshaking control the input and output action of the specified port. Port C lines PC0-PC2, provide strobe or handshake lines for port B. This group which includes port B and PC0-PC2 is called as group B for Strobed data input/output. Port C lines PC3-PC5 provide strobe lines for port A.This group including port A and PC3-PC5 from group A. Thus port C is utilized for generating handshake signals. The salient features of mode 1 are listed as follows: Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) 1. 2. 3. 4. Two groups – group A and group B are available for strobed data transfer. Each group contains one 8-bit data I/O port and one 4-bit control/data port. The 8-bit data port can be either used as input and output port. The inputs and outputs both are latched. Out of 8-bit port C, PC0-PC2 are used to generate control signals for port B and PC3-PC5 are used to generate control signals for port A. he lines PC6, PC7 may be used as independent data lines. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ The control signals for both the groups in input and output modes are explained as follows: Input control signal definitions (mode 1 ): †¢ STB( Strobe input ) – If this lines falls to logic low level, the data available at 8-bit input port is loaded into input latches. †¢ IBF ( Input buffer full ) – If this signal rises to logic 1, it indicates that data has been loaded into latches, i. e. it works as an acknowledgement. IBF is set by a low on STB and is reset by the rising edge of RD input.Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ INTR ( Interrupt request ) – This active high output signal can be used to interrupt the CPU whenever an input device requests the service. INTR is set by a high STB pin and a high at IBF pin. INTE is an internal flag that can be controlled by the bit set/reset mode of either PC4 (INTEA) or PC2(INTEB) as shown in fig. †¢ INTR is reset by a falling edge of RD input. Thus an external input device can be request the service of the processor by putting the data on the bus and sending the strobe signal. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. Output control signal definitions (mode 1) : †¢ OBF (Output buffer full ) – This status signal, whenever falls to low, indicates that CPU has written data to the specified output port. The OBF flip-flop will be set by a rising edge of WR signal and reset by a low going edge at the ACK input. †¢ ACK ( Acknowledge input ) – ACK signal acts as an acknowledgement to be given by an output device. ACK signal, whenever low, informs the CPU that the data transferred by the CPU to the output device through the port is received by the output device.Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ INTR ( Interrupt request ) – Thus an output signal that can be used to interrupt the CPU when an output device acknowledges the data received from the CPU. INTR is set when ACK, OBF and INTE are 1. It is reset by a falling edge on WR input. The INTEA and INTEB flags are controlled by the bit set-reset mode of PC 6and PC2 respectively. 1 0 1 0 Input control signal definitions in Mode 1 1/0 X X X 1 X X X X 1 1 X D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 1 – Input 0 – Output For PC6 – PC7 PA0 – PA7 INTEA PC4 PC5 STBA IBFA D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0PB0 – PB7 INTEB PC 2 PC1 STBB IBFB PC3 RD PC6 – PC7 INTRA I/O PC0 INTR A Mode 1 Control Word Group A I/P RD Mode 1 Control Word Group B I/P STB IBF INTR RD DATA from Peripheral Mode 1 Strobed Input Data Transfer WR OBF INTR ACK Data OP to Port Mode 1 Strobed Data Output Output control signal definitions Mode 1 1 0 1 0 1/0 X X X 1 X X X X 1 0 X D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 1 – Input 0 – Output For PC4 – PC5 PA0 – PA7 INTEA PC7 PC6 OBF ACKA D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 PB0 PB7 INTEB PC PC2 1 OBFB ACKB PC3 WR PC4 – PC5 PC0 INTRA I/O INTRB Mode 1 Control Word Gr oup AMode 1 Control Word Group B Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ Mode 2 ( Strobed bidirectional I/O ): This mode of operation of 8255 is also called as strobed bidirectional I/O. This mode of operation provides 8255 with an additional features for communicating with a peripheral device on an 8-bit data bus. Handshaking signals are provided to maintain proper data flow and synchronization between the data transmitter and receiver. The interrupt generation and other functions are similar to mode 1. †¢ In this mode, 8255 is a bidirectional 8-bit port with handshake signals.The RD and WR signals decide whether the 8255 is going to operate as an input port or output port. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Salient features of Mode 2 of 8255 are listed as follows: The single 8-bit port in group A is available. The 8-bit port is bidirectional and additionally a 5-bit control port is available. Three I/O lines are available at port C. ( PC2 â⠂¬â€œ PC0 ) Inputs and outputs are both latched. The 5-bit control port C (PC3-PC7) is used for generating / accepting handshake signals for the 8-bit data transfer on port A.Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ Control signal definitions in mode 2: †¢ INTR – (Interrupt request) As in mode 1, this control signal is active high and is used to interrupt the microprocessor to ask for transfer of the next data byte to/from it. This signal is used for input ( read ) as well as output ( write ) operations. †¢ Control Signals for Output operations: †¢ OBF ( Output buffer full ) – This signal, when falls to low level, indicates that the CPU has written data to port A. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) ACK ( Acknowledge ) This control input, when falls to logic low level, acknowledges that the previous data byte is received by the destination and next byte may be sent by the processor. This signal enables the internal tristate buffers to send the next data byte on port A. †¢ INTE1 ( A flag associated with OBF ) This can be controlled by bit set/reset mode with PC6 . †¢ Control signals for input operations : †¢ STB (Strobe input ) A low on this line is used to strobe in the data into the input latches of 8255. Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ IBF ( Input buffer full ) When the data is loaded into input buffer, this ignal rises to logic ‘1’. This can be used as an acknowledge that the data has been received by the receiver. †¢ The waveforms in fig show the operation in Mode 2 for output as well as input port. †¢ Note: WR must occur before ACK and STB must be activated before RD. WR OBF INTR ACK STB IBF Data bus RD Mode 2 Bidirectional Data Transfer Data from 8085 Data towards 8255 Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont.. ) †¢ The following fig shows a schematic diagram containing an 8-bit bidirectional port, 5-bit control port and the relation of INTR with the control pins. Port B ca n either be set to Mode 0 or 1 with port A( Group A ) is in Mode 2. Mode 2 is not available for port B. The following fig shows the control word. †¢ The INTR goes high only if either IBF, INTE2, STB and RD go high or OBF, INTE1, ACK and WR go high. The port C can be read to know the status of the peripheral device, in terms of the control signals, using the normal I/O instructions. D7 1 D6 1 D5 X D4 X D3 X D2 1/0 D1 1/0 D0 1/0 1/0 mode Port A mode 2 Port B mode 0-mode 0 1- mode 1 PC2 – PC0 1 – Input 0 – Output Port B 1- I/P 0-O/P Mode 2 control word PC3 PA0-PA7 INTR INTE 1 PC7 PC6 OBF ACK STB IBF 3 I/O INTE 2 RD WR PC4 PC5 Mode 2 pins